The Legend of Bernardo del Carpio 3: The Three Chronicles

There are only three chronicles which seem to present independent accounts of Bernardo’s life. All later works, with the possible exception of a few ballads, derive from the chronicles of Lucas of Tuy, Rodigo of Rada, and Alfonso the Wise.

SECTION 1

LUCAS OF TUY

Lucas of Tuy was born in Leon and grew up to be well-learned and well-traveled, having been to Jerusalem, Constantinople, Rome, and Paris, among other places. In 1239 he was elected bishop of Tuy, which position he held until his death in 1249. Besides his Chronicon Mundi (1232-1237), he was also author of De miraculis sancti Isidori (1220-1235), and of De altera vita, in three books against the Albigensians (1230-1240). A Vita sancti Isidori and a Historia translationis sancti Isidori were once wrongly attributed to him, but in fact predate him.

The Chronicon, written for Alfonso VIII’s daughter Berenguela, is divided into four books, the first three of which are copied straight from Isidore, Ildefonso of Toledo and others. Not until the fourth book does Lucas present any original material, though still drawing largely on the Chronicle of Alfonso III and the Historia Silense, and others. He gives no source for his information about Bernardo.

Lucas’ chronicle was printed in Volume IV of Hispaniae illustratae seu rerum, urbiumque Hispaniae, Lusitaniae, Aethiopiae et Indiae scriptores varii, Frankfurt, 1608. Pages 1-116. A modern critical edition forms Volume 74 of the Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Medieavalis.

Book IV, Section 14: The king’s sister Xemena is impregnated by Count Sanctius and brings forth Bernaldus. King Alfonso, furious, imprisons the Count in the Castle of Luna, swearing that he will never come out alive. He confines his sister to a nunnery and raises the boy as his own. The lad grew up to be a strong and daring knight.

Section 15: In those days Charles the Great, King of France and Emperor of Rome, expelled the Saracens from Burgundy, Poitou, and all Gaul, and then crossed the Pyrenees via Roscidevallis to continue the war. He brought under his yoke the Goths and Spaniards who lived in Catalonia, in the Basque mountains, and in Navarre, and ordered Alfonso to become his vassal. Bernaldus was indignant at the suggestion, and formed an alliance with the Saracens. Charles at that time was besieging Tudela, which he would have captured if not for Galalon’s treason. Charles did, however, take Nájera and Monte Jardín, and then prepared to return to France.

The barbarian King Marsil of Saragossa rallied an army of Saracens and allied with Bernardo and his Navarrese, and fell on the Frankish rear as they passed through Rocidevallis, killing Prefect Rodlandus of Brittany, Count Anselm, Egiardus the Steward, and many more. King Charles later had his revenge on the Saracens, killing a great number of them, [it is not clear if this is the second battle in the Song of Roland or an entirely new expedition]. After his revenge Charles went on pilgrimage to Saint James, made peace with King Alfonso, rebuilt the city of Iria, and obtained from Pope Leo III for Compostela to be elevated to a metropolitan [archbishopric]. He then returned to Germany with Bernaldus and died soon after, at Aix, where he was buried. Bernaldus served in the imperial household even after Charlemagne’s death, under Louis the Pious (814-840) and Lothair I (840-855). [Bernardo now passes from the story until the reign of Alfonso III (866-910)].

Section 16. Alfonso, in the 47th year of his reign, made an alliance with a Moorish emir named Mahomet against the Moorish king Abd-er-Rahman, and returned to Oviedo with great spoils, after which he married Berta, sister of King Charles of France, but as he never saw her, he was called the Chaste. After 52 years of reigning, he died and was laid in Saint Mary’s church in Oviedo.

Section 20: Alfonso III fought a battle against the Saracens at Toledo, in which Bernaldus’ assistance was invaluable. After the battle, Bernaldus built the castle of Carpio near Salamanca, and rebelled against King Alfonso, on account of his father’s imprisonment in the Castle of Luna. The Saracens seized this opportunity to attack Astorga and Leon and lay them waste with fire and sword. King Alfonso promised Bernaldus his father’s liberty if he would make peace, which was done, and they fell upon the Saracens, who had split into two parties. Alfonso massacred them at Polvorosa, and Bernaldus chased them away from Valdemora. Afterwards, the Saracens laid siege to Zamora, so Alfonso and Bernaldus defeated them there, too. Bernardo at this battle killed Alchamam, a heathen prophet. King Alfonso married Xemena, who was first cousin to Charlemagne [she wasn’t; in reality, she was a princess from Pamplona].

Section 21: Emperor Charles III (the Fat, not the Simple, r. 881-888) invaded Spain, attacking Christians and Muslims alike [this never happened], but Bernaldus raised an army of Christians and allied with King Muza of Saragossa, and turned back Charles’ army before they had even crossed the Pyrenees. Charles made alliance with Alfonso, who restored the Mozarabic rite in the churches of Spain. Charles went on pilgrimage to Santiago and San Salvador, and obtained from Pope John Metropolitan [archepiscopal] privileges for those two sites. Bernaldus returned to his fatherland, laden with spoils. Lucas explains that there were three Emperors named Charles: Charles the Great, who lived in the days of Pope Leo and Alfonso the Chaste; another Charles who lived in the days of Pope John, and Charles the Hammer, who succeeded him.

Section 22: The Saracens laid siege to Leon, under two dukes named Ymundar and Alcatenetel, but Bernaldus captured them. Alfonso did many other works [related in detail] including building the church of San Salvador in Zamora, and around that time Bernaldus died. [We are never told if Count Sancho was actually freed or not]. Shortly after his death, Queen Xemena began her rebellion.

SECTION 2

RODERICUS XIMENIUS DE RADA1

Rodricus Ximenius de Rada, or Rodrigo Jiménez (1170-1247), born in Navarre, studied in Bologna and Paris, returned to Castile, where he was elected Archbishop of Toledo in 1207. He took part at the famous battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212, attended Lateran IV in, and died on June 10, 1247.

He was the author of numerous histories, of the Romans; Ostrogoths; Huns, Vandals, Sueves, Alans and Silongorum; Arabs; the Catholic Church; and that with which we are concerned, Historia de Rebus Hispaniae, sive Historia Gothica. This last chronicle is mostly compiled from Jordanus, Isidore, the Mozarbic Chronicle, those of Alfonso III, Sampiro, Najera, Pelagius, and Lucas of Tuy.

For his history of Alfonso II, he draws on the Chronicles of Alfonso III, Najera, and Lucas. For Alfonso III, he draws from Sampiro and Lucas. He also adds many details of his own, some apparently drawn from popular tradition, others likely his own invention. In many ways his history is a rival to Lucas’. Lucas, Bishop of Tuy, was in the archdiocese of Compostela, and hence accepted the legend of Charlemagne’s pilgrimage to that shrine, and the myth that he had bestowed upon it the primacy over Spain. Rodrigo, archbishop of the much older see of Toledo, denies the whole legend and devotes an entire chapter to refuting Turpin’s account of Charles’ conquest of Spain. He generally portrays kings in a more favorable light than his sources do (such as attributing the victory at Roncesvalles to Alfonso), and plays up the Reconquista spirit (such as minimizing the Moors’ role at that battle).

There are several old printings, including Volume II Hispaniae illustratae, page 25 sq.. and Sanctorum Patrum Toletanorum Opera, Vol. III, pp. 1-208. A modern critical edition forms Volume 72 of the Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Medieavalis. Old Spanish translations were made by various hands, but none, to my knowledge have been printed.

Book IV, Chapter 9: Alfonso II’s sister Semena secretly marries Count Sancius and bears him a son, Berinaldus. The king, learning of this, imprisons the Count in the Castle of Luna and his sister in a nunnery. As he is childless, he raises Berinaldus as his own son, and the boy grows up to be a fine knight.

Chapter 10: Alfonso, old and tired of reigning, secretly sends word to Charles, Emperor of Italy, Germany, and Gaul, to offer him the throne. Charles drives the Arabs out of France and then sends some men over the Pyrenees, subduing Catalonia. At this juncture, Alfonso’s men, led by Berinaldus, learn of his offer and force him to rescind it or they will depose him. They say they would rather die as free men than live as vassals of the Franks. Charles is furious, and abandons his war against the Arabs to attack Alfonso. As the bulk of his army is crossing the Pyrenees into Spain, they are met with Alfonso’s army, gathered from Asturias, Alava, Biscay, Navarre, Ruchonia, and Aragon. The Spaniards meet Charles’ vanguard, [not rearguard] in Hospita Vallis, also called Val de Carlos, and destroy it, killing Rollandus, Anselmus, and Egiardus, among others. Charlemagne, coming upon the aftermath, blows his horn to rally the survivors. They return to Germany, where Charles plots his revenge, but dies before he can carry it out and is buried at Aachen in a magnificent tomb.

Some of the Franks thought, in their panic, that Bernardo was with an army of Muslims in the Spanish rearguard and led them through Aspae Pass [Somport] and Secolae Pass [Soule]. In reality, however, he was always with Alfonso in the van.

Chapter 11: Rodrigo devotes this chapter to refuting Turpin’s account of Charles’ adventures in Spain. He goes through Turpin’s list of conquests city by city and explains when each of them were really retaken. He also denies that Charles was the founder of the Way of Saint James, though he admits that Charles spent time at King Galafre’s court in his youth and married his daughter Galiana, and perhaps he hence had some influence on Spanish affairs.

Chapter 15: Alfonso III fought a battle against the Saracens at Toledo, in which Berinaldus’ assistance was invaluable. After the battle, however, Berinaldus, because his father was still imprisoned, built the castle of Carpio in the land of Salamanca, and allied with the Saracens to harry Alfonso’s borders. He attacked Astorga and Leon and laid them waste with fire and sword. King Alfonso made peace with Berinaldus by pardoning his father. Alfonso and Berinaldus then fell upon the Saracens, who had split into two parties. Alfonso massacred them at Polvoroso, and Berinaldus at Valdemora. Only ten survived Polvorosa, by pretending to be dead.

Chapter 16: Later, the Saracens were laying siege to Zamora, so Alfonso and Berinaldus defeated them there, too. Berinaldus at this battle killed Alchamam, a heathen prophet. The Saracens were obliged to make peace with Alfonso. In those days, some say, Alfonso fought the battle of Roscide Vallis against Charles the Hammer, but this is an error, and the truth is that that battle was fought against Charles the Great. This, at least, is what Rodrigo thinks most likely, but he says he is open to correction. Alfonso engaged in many other wars, the details of which are given. [Berinaldus does not feature, and disappears from the chronicle].

Chapter 17: Pope John grants the privileges to Alfonso without Charles III’s intercession.

SECTION 3

PRIMERA CRÓNICA GENERAL

The Estoria de España, also known as the Primera Crónica General, is a history of Spain commissioned by King Alfonso X the Wise of Castile, and written in the vernacular. This massive undertaking draws primarily on Lucas and Rodrigo, but also on other chronicles (both Latin and Arab), saints’ lives, cantares de gesta, and generally anything Alfonso’s men could get their hands on. The first edition was completed in 1271, but Alfonso ordered a revision in 1282. A further revision was made by his son Sancho IV in 1289. These versions all continued to circulate, and there are a bewildering number of further revisions, combinations, and additions, which mercifully need not concern us here, as the section about Bernardo remained unchanged. Alfonso’s men did their best to reconcile Lucas and Rodriguez, and added incidents and details from other versions they knew, which seem to have included both cantares de gesta and a now-lost prose history.

Chapter 617: In the 21st year of Alfonso’s reign [803], the 5th of Charlemagne’s [804], AD 800, his sister Ximena secretly married Count San Diaz of Saldaña, and bore him a son named Bernaldo. The king, on hearing the news, held a court, and sent Orios Godos and Count Tiobalte to bring the count to him. The count came, suspecting no ill, but Alfonso had him arrested. His men bound the count so tightly he bled, and Alfonso approved thereof. He imprisoned San Diaz in the Castle of Luna, and his sister in a nunnery. The only thing San Diaz asked was that Alfonso would treat Bernaldo well. Alfonso agreed, and raised the boy as his own, and he became a good knight. Some say in their cantares et fablas, however, that Bernaldo was son of Charlemagne’s sister Timbor, who was raped by San Diaz as she returned from a pilgrimage to Saint James. Alfonso adopted their son, since he had no heir of his own [The implication, though this is not stated until later, is that Alfonso was married to Charlemagne’s other sister Berta, as in Pelagius of Oviedo].

Chapter 618: Deals with Abderrahmen and Anbroz’ attack on Toledo.

Chapter 619: In the 27th year1 of Alfonso’s reign [809], the 12th of Charlemagne’s [811], AD 806, Alfonso, being old and childless, sent to Charles offering him his throne, if he would help him fight the Moors. Charles expelled the Moors from Provence, Bordeaux, Piteos, and Aquitaine, and then crossed the Pyrenees to Spain, conquering Catalonia. Lucas of Tuy says he also conquered Gascony and Navarre. The men of Spain, however, led by Bernaldo, learned of Alfonso’s offer and forced him to rescind it, or else they would depose him. Bernaldo formed an alliance with the Saracen King Marsil of Saragossa. Charles at that time was besieging Tudela, which he would have captured had it not been for Count Galaron’s treason. After taking Nájera, Charles and his army went into the mountains of Spain, where the Christians had fled to escape the sword of the Moors. They all declared, however, that they would rather die than submit to the Frankish yoke, and the men of Asturias, Alava, Biscay, Navarre, Ruconia (the Basques) and Aragon united under Alfonso’s banner against Charles, whose rearguard they encountered in Val Carlos in the Pyrenees. There Alfonso, Marsil, and Bernardo defeated the Franks, killing Don Roldan, Count Anselmo, Guiralte the Steward, and many more. Don Rodrigo says Bernaldo fought with Alfonso in the vanguard. Don Lucas says he fought in the rearguard with Marsil. Be that as it may, Charles hurried back to the valley, but when he saw his men dead, he blew his horn to gather the survivors, and they retreated to Germany to plot his revenge.

620: The Moors of Cordova rebel against Alhacan their lord, who puts them to the sword with the help of Abdelcarin.

621: In the 28th year of Alfonso’s reign [810], the 12th of Charlemagne’s [811], AD 807, two of Bernardo’s kinsmen, Blasco Meléndez and Suero Velásquez, having sworn an oath to Alfonso not to tell Bernardo about Count Sancho, make a plan with two of their kinswomen, Maria Meléndez and Urraca Sánchez. The women play chess with Bernardo, let him win, and then inform him how his father languishes in durance vile. Bernardo asked Alfonso for his father’s liberty, which was refused, but Bernardo swore he would nonetheless stay faithful to his king.

In the 29th year of Alfonso’s reign, nothing of interest happened.

622: In the 30th year, King Alhacan of Cordova died.

623: In the 31st year [813], the 15th of Charlemagne’s [814], AD 810, Charlemagne died [really 814]. His tomb was covered with lavish ornament, save for the side which looked towards Ronçasvalles, which was left blank. But Don Lucas says that after that loss King Charles laid siege to Saragossa, took Bernardo prisoner, and killed King Marsil. Then they returned into France together, and Charles eventually freed Bernardo and bestowed gifts on him. But at last he returned to Spain and fought many battles and died, as we shall relate. But some say in their cantares and fablas de gesta that Charles conquered many cities in Spain and founded the Way of Saint James, but this is a lie. [An account of the Reconquista follows, agreeing with Rodrigo’s IV:11]. It is certain, at any rate, that Charles and his host were defeated at Ronçasvalles, whether by Christians or Moors, and hence he cannot have opened the Way of Saint James, though he may have exerted his influence at King Galafre’s court. Don Lucas says that Charles made peace with Alfonso and then went on pilgrimage to Saint James and San Salvador, and obtained privileges for them from the Pope, and King Alfonso imposed the Hispanic rite on all Spain.

624: Year 31. King Abderrahmen of Cordova captures Barcelona.

Year 32 to 37, nothing interesting.

Chapter 625: Year 37, a Moor of Merida, named Mahomad, went to war against Abderrahmen of Cordova, and lost, and King Alfonso let him live in Galicia (?)

Years 38-39, nothing interesting.

Chapter 626: Year 40, the 9th of Louis the Pious’, AD 819, [822] Mahomad betrayed King Alfonso and rebelled against him, but Alfonso slew him.

King Alfonso was married, but never saw his wife. Don Lucas says his wife’s name was Berta, the sister of Charlemagne.

Chapter 627: Year 41 [823], the 10th of Louis the Pious [824], AD 820, Alfonso died and was buried in Saint Mary’s. [Really died 842. Don Ramiro succeeds to the throne, and Bernardo is not mentioned again until the reign of Alfonso III.]

Chapter 643: Alfonso III the Great becomes king, AD 837 [really 866], 1st year of Lothair’s reign [840].

Chapter 648: Year 4, AD 840 [869], 4th of Lothair [843]. A great army of Moors from Toledo raided the Christian lands. King Alfonso defeated them by the river Duero, with the help of Bernaldo.

Chapter 649: Year 5, AD 841 [870], 5th of Lothair [844]. King Ores of Merida invaded Christendom and laid siege to Benavento. King Alfonso rode to the rescue and personally killed Ores. Bernaldo was there, too, and fought well. King Alchaman laid siege to Zamora, but Bernaldo killed him.

Chapter 650: Year 6, AD 842 [871], 6th of Lothair [845]. Some Moors invaded again, and split into two parts. One went to Polvorosa, and the other to Valdemoro. Alfonso slaughtered one division by the River Orvego, and Bernaldo in Valdemoro. The king returned to Toro, laden with loot and glory.

Chapter 651: Year 7, AD 843 [872], 7th of Lothair [846]. Don Bueso of France invaded Spain. King Alfonso meets him in battle by Ordeion in Castile, near a castle called Amaya. Some say in their cantares segund cuenta la estoria that Buseo was Bernaldo’s cousin. Bernaldo killed Bueso in the fray. After the battle, Bernaldo kissed Alfonso’s hand and asked for the liberty of his father, and called to mind all the times he had helped him against the Moors. But Alfonso refused, and Bernaldo renounced his service, and did not go to war or court for a year

Chapter 652: Year 8, AD 844 [873], 8th of Lothair [847]. King Alfonso held court at Pentecost, to which came, among others, Orios Godos and Tiobalt. But Bernaldo did not come, until the Queen promised him that she would ask for his father’s liberty. He came, and she asked, but Alfonso refused, and Bernaldo denounced and insulted him in front of the whole court, reminding him of all his faithful service, prompting Alfonso to banish him. His kinsmen Blasco Meléndez, Suero Velásquez, and Nuño de Leon left with him. They retreated to Saldaña, whence they made war against Alfonso for two years.

Chapter 653. Year 9. King Mahomet of Cordova makes war against Toledo.

Chapter 654. Year 10, AD 846 [875], 10th of Lothair [849]. Bernaldo was joined by many men from Benavente, Toro, and Zamora, who swore not to leave him until his father was free. With his new army, Bernaldo marched on Salamanca. He advanced with a small division, and then retreated, luring Alfonso’s troops into an ambush, where Orios Godos and Count Tiobalte were captured. Bernaldo then founded El Carpio near Salamanca. He made alliance with the Muslims and raided Astorga and Leon, prompting Alfonso to lay siege to El Carpio. Bernaldo freed Orios Godos and Count Tiobalte, but Alfonso still refused to free his father. Bernaldo, in revenge, raided Salamanca, but cautioned his men not to go overboard plundering it, lest there be nothing left to take in the future.

Chapter 655: Year 11, AD 847 [876], 11th of Lothair [850]. Alfonso’s men at last prevailed upon him to release San Diaz. Bernaldo agreed to this, and handed over his castle of El Carpio. Alfonso sent Orios and Tiobalte to fetch Count San Diaz, but they arrived three days after his death. They say in their songs that Alfonso ordered the corpse to be cleaned, mounted on a horse, and paraded before Saldaña. Bernardo surrendered the city and went forth to meet his father. When he realized he had been deceived, he rounded on the king with fury, and the king banished him again.

They say in cantares that Bernaldo went to France, where King Charles the Bald welcomed him, but Timbor’s son rejected him. Despairing, Bernaldo left the court. Charles gave him horses and arms, but Bernaldo still ravaged the land as he returned to Spain, where he founded Canal de Jaca, married Doña Galiana, daughter of Count Alardos de Latre, and begot on her Galín Galíndez, who grew up to be a fine knight in his own right. Bernardo fought three great battles against the Moors before his death. Some say that it was Alfonso III who fought at Ronçasvalles, but the best authors, French and Spanish, say it was Charlemagne and Alfonso II.

Chapter 656. Year 12. Irrelevant to us. Years 13-20. Nothing interesting. Year 21, AD 857 [886]. Bernardo del Carpio died, as Don Lucas says.

For the curious, Bernardo is seven at the battle of Roncesvalles [!], forty-three when he vanquishes Don Bueso, forty-seven when he frees his father, and fifty-seven at his death.

Advertisements

The Legend of Garin the Lorrainer – Variants, Origins, and Influence

PROSE GARIN – ARSENAL

This version is closest to S, featuring S’s abridged opening. The two are not quite identical, but few of the details in which they differ need concern us here. The author trims much of the detail of fighting and shortens the speeches, but changes no incidents.

Fromont has thirty sons, mostly bastards. [This same trait is attributed to various Maganzans in some later Italian works].

PROSE GARIN – PHILIPPE DE VIGNEULLES

Like all medievals, Philippe considers Garin and Gerbert to be a single work, which he divides into three books. Book I includes Paris’ Parts I and II. Book II covers the death of Begon and the ensuing war. Book III begins with the death of Garin and includes all of Gerbert de Metz. He follows the first redaction.

Philippe turns dialogue into indirect summaries, shortens the poem throughout, and adds a few details of his own. Whenever action takes place in Metz, he identifies the locations in the contemporary city.

Garin is buried in the Abbey of Saint Arnoul outside Metz.

PROSE GARIN – DAVID AUBERT

David Aubert’s History of Charles Martel includes, among other stories, that of the Lorrainers, following that of Girart of Roussillon. The compilation was finished in 1463. He follows the chanson closely in incident, but abridges the fight scenes and other descriptions, and recasts dialogue. Nonetheless, the fight scenes are not updated, and faithfully reflect the customs of the 1100’s. Manuel Galopin retains his joie de vivre in the taverns, but is quietly stripped of his magical abilities.

Volume 2 of Aubert’s history opens with an account of how Charles Martel gave a feast at St. John’s Day, with his Queen Alexandrine (sister of Girart of Roussillon’s wife Bertha) and their son Pepin, who was handsome, gracious, pleasant and noble, well taught and having all virtues, notwithstanding his short stature. At the feast, a horrible lion escaped from the royal menagerie, terrifying the guests, who all fled, save for Pepin, who confronted the beast and slew it.

Sometime after this, Girart of Roussillon died, at which the heathen Saxons thought it safe to attack France again. The Holy Father came from Rome to speak with King Charles, and granted him permission to tax the clergy. The book thus transitions into the story of Garin le Loherain, as given in the First Redaction. Volume 2 ends with Guerin, as he spells it, making peace with King Pepin and the Bordelais for the last time before his death.

Continue reading

The Legend of Orson of Beauvais

The legend of Orson of Beauvais is found in only one version: a chanson de geste of about 3,700 rhymed alexandrines, written around 1180-1200, surviving in only one manuscript, written in Lorraine in the late 1200’s.

There are also allusions to the story in Valentine and Orson and in David Aubert’s History of Charles Martel.

ORSON OF BEAUVAIS

In the reign of Charles Martel, Duke Orson of Beauvais helps the king win a war against the rebellion Count Hugh of Berry. After the war, Orson and Hugh become companions. Orson marries Aceline, daughter of Count Huon of Auvergne, and has by her a son, Milon. Hugh stands godfather to the boy. Hugh, unfortunately, falls in love with Aceline. He sneaks into Orson’s chamber at night and pretends to be an angel, ordering him to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land with Hugh. Orson is suspicious and searches the chamber, but Hugh has gone out the window, and Orson, finding no one, concludes it must have been a real vision. Aceline, woeful, gives Orson a gold ring to send her as a token.

Hugh and Orson travel through France and Italy to Barlette, where Hugh sells Orson to Saracen slavers, subjects of King Isoré of Conibres. Hugh also steals Aceline’s ring. The Saracens offer Orson a chance to convert, which he refuses, and so they imprison him.

Hugh, meanwhile, has bought palm leaves from a Hungarian pilgrim, and now returns home with an elaborate false story: Orson had confessed to him that he had been part of a plot to assassinate King Charles, and to do penance therefore he had decided to become a monk at the Holy Sepulchre. He died shortly afterward, and he begged Hugh to marry his widow, take his fiefs, and raise his son. Charles Martel protests that since Hugh stood godfather to Aceline’s child, it would be incest to marry her. Milon also protests the wedding, as Aceline has no interest in marrying Hugh and neither son nor mother believes that Orson is really dead. Hugh administers a judicious mixture of flattery and bribery to Charles, and the wedding is held, but fortunately, Aceline’s chambermaid gives her a herb she bought from a Slavic merchant which leaves Hugh impotent.

Hugh tries to kill Milon, but a kitchen boy warns Aceline, who arranges for the boy to escape with his tutor Guinemand. (It is never stated how old Milon is at the time, but he is already a strong warrior, though still just a lad.). Hugh beats Aceline and throws her in prison, feeding her once every three days. Meanwhile, Milon refuses to take charity from his mother’s kinsmen, and instead heads for foreign lands. On the way, he and Guinemand pass through Berry, and unfortunately arrive at the castle of Baudri of Bourges, a kinsman of Hugh, who discovers their identity and seizes them, despite Milon’s resistance. He plans to hang them, but his castellan, whose life Orson once saved, persuades him to wait until Hugh can come and watch. Baudri foolishly agrees, and the castellan helps the prisoners escape. The guards sound the alarm, and Baudri pursues, but Guinemand kills him and the fugitives escape, passing through southern France, crossing Roncesvalles, and at last arriving at Compostela. There they take service with some Norman knights who go to succor King Basile of Bile against the Saracen Isoré of Conibres. One of the knights, Forcon, recognizes Milon by his resemblance to Orson, under whom he once served in a war against Floclart of Senlis. The Normans reach Bile, Basile dubs Milon a knight, and Milon and  Princess Oriente fall in love. Milon distinguishes himself in battle as Oriente looks on. He fights Isoré, and in the course of trading taunts he reveals that his father Orson was sold to the infidels. Isoré briefly wonders if it could be the Christian he’s holding in his dungeon. The Saracens are repelled.

Basile offers Oriente’s hand to Milon, who accepts it, but refuses to marry her until he has punished Hugh. Isoré returns with an even larger army, but Milon kills him, and the Christians conquer Conibres. They kill the men and baptized the women. Orson is freed from his seven-year’s imprisonment and reunited with his son.

Meanwhile, Hugh has decided to burn Aceline at the stake. Orson’s vassal Count Doon of Clermont, however, rescues her, and a war ensues. Hugh deceives Charles into taking his side, and they lay siege to Clermont, where Aceline and Doon are. The siege lasts six months. Charles at last tells Hugh that he must put Aceline away, and gives him his own niece for his new wife. On the wedding night, the besieged sneak into Charles’ camp and make off with the food.

Orson and company, having visited Jerusalem and bathed in the Jordan, make their way home via Acre, Venice and Rome to France, much to the surprise of the besieged and the besiegers. Hugh, stunned, invents a new story that Orson became a Templar as penance for his attempted assassination of Charles, and begged Hugh to pretend he was dead so as not to embarrass his family. Charles, bewildered, arranges a trial by combat. Milon obtains a dispensation of his godfilial duties from an archbishop in order to fight Hugh and wins. Hugh is hanged in full armor, Orson regains Beauvais, and Milon turns down the offer of Charles’ newly-widowed niece in order to return to Princess Oriante. The poem ends with the statement that he had to endure many hardships before he was wed to her.

VALENTINE AND ORSON

At one point in the story of Valentine and Orson, the titular Orson and his brother-in-law the Green Knight travel to Jerusalem with a knight named Hugh, who has them imprisoned by the Saracens and then forges letters from them saying they intend to stay in Jerusalem fighting the heathens. It is not quite clear whether this is a direct borrowing from Orson of Beauvais or just an odd coincidence.

DAVID AUBERT

There can be no doubt, however, that David Aubert’s brief mentions of Orson of Beauvais are owing to the poem. When Charles Martel is fighting Duke Hilaire of Aquitaine, Count (not Duke) Orson of Beauvais is his standard-bearer and distinguishes himself in battle. Hugh is fighting alongside Charles against Hilaire, even though later on he will sell Orson to the Saracens, which is a story David says he does not choose to tell.

SOURCES AND INFLUENCE

There is no historical basis for anything or anyone in the poem, except Charles Martel. Beauvais was never a duchy and never had a lord named Orson.

The lands of Bile and Conibres may be the Portuguese provinces of Beira and Coimbra, or they may be purely imaginary. Bile may also be the same as the Land of Bire, home to King Vivien at the end of the Oxford Roland.

The king in the poem is sometimes called Charles Martel, and sometimes Charlemagne. Since none of the Paladins or the other usual companions of Charlemagne appear, it is most likely that the original intent was Charles Martel.

The poem ends promising a sequel, but if any such was ever written, it is now lost. Perhaps it was never meant to be more than an exciting ending.

Some tapestries (now lost) were made in the 1400’s depicting scenes from the story.

There is a translation in modern French by Michel Lefèvre, which is available from the Beauvais tourist office. There are no English versions of the story.

The Battle of Tours

Today is the 1,285th anniversary of the Battle of Tours, also known as the Battle of Poitiers, October 10, 732, when Charles Martel and his “northern men of robust limbs and iron hands stood like an unmovable wall of ice and cut the Arabs to pieces,” as the Mozarabic Chronicle puts it.

The Mahometan hordes had overrun Spain in 711, and after consolidating their control, they turned their attentions to France. In 720, when Theuderic IV was King of the Franks and Charles Martel was his Mayor of the Palace, the Saracens conquered Narbonne and laid siege to Toulouse. Duke Eudes of Aquitaine saved Toulouse, but could not recover Narbonne, and there Islam began to take root, and thence tentative minor raids were made on France. In 732 the Emir of Spain, Abd-er-Rahman, decided that there had been enough pussy-footing around, raised an army, crossed the Pyrenees, burned every church in his path, sacked Bordeaux, expelled Duke Eudes, and continued north, until he came to Poitiers, a mere 200 miles from Paris. Duke Eudes, however, had fled to the north, and formed an alliance with Charles, Mayor of the Palace. Their combined army held the road between Poitiers and Tours, and thanks to Charles’ brilliant tactics, the Franks held their ground. Abd-el-Rahman was slain, and his army melted away. There would be many further raids, but never again would they come so far north. France was saved.

Modern scholars have attempted to downplay the importance of the battle, but their arguments are weak. One the one hand, they point out that Muslim raids on Christendom continued. On the other, they claim that even in Charles and Eudes had been defeated, the Muslims still would not have conquered France. As to the first, that the raids continued is true, but, as we said above, they never again went so far north. As to the second, the idea that the Muslims would not have conquered France if Charles Martel had been out of the picture is preposterous in the extreme. A victory at Tours, with Charles disgraced or dead, would have left the road open for Abd-el-Rahman to reach the Rhine. Theuderic IV, a true do-nothing heir of the Merovingians, would certainly not have stopped him, and all France would have had to choose between the Koran, the sword, or dhimmitude. France would have become a new center of Muslim power, and new converts would have been made, a few from the Franks, most likely, and certainly many from the still-pagan Saxons and other Germans beyond the border, who would have been among the next to be attacked, and who, being pagans, would not have had the option of dhimmitude. One shudders to think what would have become of Italy and Constantinople if they had been attacked from the north by Vikings filled with zeal for Islam on top of their lust for plunder.

The Legend of Girart of Roussillon – Origins and Influence

ORIGINS OF THE LEGEND

Girart of Roussillon, Girart of Vienne, and Girart of Euphrate are all inspired by the same historical figure: Girart II, Count of Paris, born 810, ascended 837, died c. 878.

Now Girart I of Paris had married Rotrude (who may have been the daughter of Carloman, son of Charles Martel), and founded the Girardid dynasty of Counts of Paris. His three sons, Stephen, Begon, and Leuthard I, succeeded him in turn as Counts. Leuthard I had two sons: Girart and Adalard. Adalard served as King Louis the Pious’ seneschal, and Girart became Count of Paris. Meanwhile, Count Hugh of Tours had two daughters: Bertha and Ermengarde. Girart II married Bertha sometime before 819, and Ermengarde married Lothair I, son of Louis the Pious and king of Middle Francia, Bavaria, and Italy, and Emperor of the West. In 836, Girart was sent on official business to Italy. In 837, he was made Count of Paris. He lost the title in 841, when he took the side of Lothair I against King Charles the Bald and broke down the bridges across the Seine to inconvenience the latter. Girart was among Lothair’s soldiers at the Battle of Fontenoy in 841, when that king and his nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine were decisively defeated by Louis the German and Charles the Bald. Lothair nonetheless made Girart his count of the palace in 842. When Lothair I died in 855, his son Charles, still a child, inherited Provence as his kingdom, and Girart became his regent. In 860, Girart repelled a band of Vikings who had sailed up the Rhone. The following year, Charles the Bald attempted to disinherit his nephew, but he was repelled, possibly by Girart, and returned to France. Around this time, Girart and Bertha founded the monasteries of Vézelay and Pothièrs. In 863, Charles of Provence died young and childless, and his lands passed to his brother Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, for whom Girart continued to administer them until that king’s death in 869, whereupon his territories were divided by his uncles Louis the German and Charles the Bald. Charles went to occupy Provence, but met with resistance from Girart and Bertha. Charles laid siege to Vienne, which was ably defended by Bertha while Girart was holding another castle nearby. Charles, however, first burnt all the lands around Vienne and then promised the people mercy if they surrendered. The people told Bertha they wished to surrender, Bertha send word to Girart, and Girart formally surrendered to Charles on Christmas Eve, 870. The couple went into retirement in their fiefs near Avignon, where Girart died between 877 and 879. He was buried in the abbey of Pothièrs, in Langres, where once could be seen Girart’s tomb on the Gospel side of the chapel, Bertha’s on the Epistle, and, in front of the altar, an epitaph for their infant son Thierry.

Bedier would have it, as usual, that the legend was created in the 11th or 12th century by some minstrel who had heard or read the monks’ chronicles of their founder, Girart. He argues that the only similarities between Girart of Paris and Girart of Roussillon are that they fought a king named Charles, had a wife named Bertha, had a son who died young, and founded certain monasteries, all facts that a minstrel could have learned at the abbey. The minstrels did not, however, know about such striking facts as Girart of Paris’ defeat of the Vikings, his protection of the young prince Charles of Provence against his cruel uncle, Bertha’s protection of Vienne on her own, etc., all things we would expect them to know if the story of Girart had been passed down orally.

Although Saint Badilon is real, the cult of St. Mary Magdalene at Vézelay seems to have been an invention of the eleventh century. Although Girart and Bertha did obtain for their monasteries the relics of Ss. Pontien, Eusebius, Andéol and Ostien, there is no record of the relics of the Magdalen there prior to 1050. Unfortunately for Vézelay, in the mid 1200’s a tomb was discovered in Provence. This tomb was, in reality, a Gallo-Roman tomb of the 500’s with a carving of Pontius Pilate washing his hands and a servant holding the washbasin. The discoverer, however, thought the servant was Mary Magdalene preparing to wash the feet of Christ, and the word went out that St. Mary Magdalene’s tomb had been found. The monks of Vézelay now claimed that they had received their relics from the south, but their popularity declined, and the cult in Provence flourished. Had it not been for this discovery, there would have been no association of the Magdalen with Provence, no tradition of St. Lazarus as bishop, no legend of St. Martha taming the Tarrasque, no Holy Blood, Holy Grail, no Da Vinci Code, and Dan Brown would be an obscure third-rate hack writer, instead of a rich and famous third-rate hack writer.

The relics at Vézelay were destroyed the Protestants during the Wars of Religion, and the church turned into a stable. The relics currently venerated there are replacements sent from elsewhere. The shrine in Provence was destroyed during the Revolution, but the skull was saved and is now in a rebuilt shrine. The most likely candidate for the real relics are those brought to Constantinople in the ninth century, but I can find no information on what became of them afterwards, or if they are still preserved today.

Read more on St. Mary Magdalene here.

Val Pergunde is perhaps Valprionda, a suburb of Cahors.

INFLUENCE

Girart of Roussillon appears already in the Oxford Song of Roland as one of the Twelve Peers, and he dies at Roncesvalles. Later works incorporated him into the elaborate genealogies of the Paladins, and made him the brother of Aymon of Dordone, Doon de Nanteuil, and Bueve d’Aigremont. He plays hardly any role, however, in the poems of the Nanteuil cycle or those of the Aymonids. On occasion he fights alongside his kinsmen, but they seldom if ever, if I recall correctly, allude to the events of his life story as given in his own chansons. Later still, Girart was made into one of the twelve sons of Doon de Mayence. Besides the three mentioned above, the other eight were: Gaufrei (father of Ogier the Dane), Grifon d’Hautefeuile (of Altafoglia, one of the Maganzans), Othon, Ripeus, Seguin of Bordeaux (father of Huon), Pierre (father of the Swan Knight), Morant de Riveirs, and Hernaut de Girone.

Some MSS of Hervis de Metz insert an episode, between Hervis proper and the beginning of Garin le Loherain, wherein Girart is at war with Charles Martel. Charles asks the Pope for permission to tax the Church, reminding him that he has always given generously to her and now needs her help. The Pope agrees, but Girart is on the warpath and nearly at Paris. Charles has enough money now, but not yet enough men, and so, reluctantly, sends to Hervis for aid. Hervis makes ready to go to France, but before he gets there, Girart conveniently dies of illness. He is buried in an abbey he founded at Bar-sur-Aube.

There are other minor references to Girart. Auberi le Bourguignon conflates Girart of Roussillon and Girart of Eufrate in a prologue. Adenet le Roi alludes to the story in Bertha Broadfoot, as does the anonymous Italian who wrote the Entrée en Espagne. Girart is mentioned in some of the chronicles, more usually as the founder of abbeys than as the adversarial brother-in-law of Charles the Bald or Charles the Hammer, or as the real Girart II of Paris.

Let thus much suffice for the Legend of Girart of Roussillon, and let us now speak of Auberi of Bourguignon, to him his fiefs were given when he died without inheritors.

The Legend of Girart of Roussillon

The legend of Girart of Roussillon is found in the following versions:

Girart de Roussillon. Rhyming decasyllables, 1150, in an artificial dialect that combines French and Provencal.

Vita nobilissimi comitis Gerardi de Rossellon. A Latin saint’s life.

Le Vie de Gerard. A French translation of the Latin life. Can be found with the Latin in Romania, vol. 7, pp. 161-235.

Gerart van Rossilun. A Low German translation of the saint’s life, of which only one page survives.

Girart de Roussillon. Rhyming Alexandrines, 1300’s, based on the decasyllables and the Latin life.

Jehan de Wauquelin’s Girart in prose, 1477, based on the Alexandrines.

David Aubert’s Histoire de Charles Martel, 1448, taken from Wauquelin.

Jean Mansel’s Fleur des Histoires, also from Wauqeulin.

Popular chapbooks, descended from Mansel’s version.

GIRART IN DECASYLLABLES

The poem claims to have been written by a monk named Sestu [Sextus], who began it in the sweet springtime. Charles Martel is holding a joust at Pentecost when word comes that Rome is under siege by the Saracens. Charles and his army travel thither to save the day with the help of the Emperor of Constantinople’s men. In return the Emperor agrees to give his elder daughter Bertha to Charles and his younger, Elissent, to Girart of Roussillon. Girart is sent to fetch them to France. When the girls arrive, however, Charles sees that Elissent is more beautiful, and demands to switch. Girart is furious, and threatens war. Charles offers him as compensation to be released from all his feudal obligations. Girart asks Elissent if she loves him, and she says yes. Thereupon Girart agrees to make peace, so that she can be Queen, and they will love truly and nobly. The double marriage is celebrated. When Charles releases Girart from his vassalage, he keeps only one right: the right to hunt in Girart’s forests. Queen Elissent gives Girart a ring, and the two part with tears. They love truly and nobly.

Some time later, Charles decides to go hunting in Roussillon, without asking leave of Girart. He prepares the hunt with his vassals, and sends a herald to Girart ordering him to do homage for his lands. Girart answers that he and his father before him held the land in alleu [that is, not as a fief, but in their own right], that he has four bold nephews, and that he does not care a fig for Charles’ power. Charles promptly lays siege to Roussillon. The siege lasts all summer, until the King bribes Girart’s seneschal Richier of Sordane, a peasant’s son, to open the gates for him. Girart awakens to find the enemy inside his castle, and he is obliged to flee to Avignon, which he also holds. He raises an army there and returns to reclaim Roussillon. Fouque kills Richier in the battle. Charles, meanwhile, is in Orleans. Girart sends Fouque as messenger to Charles, who is exceedingly displeased. Thierry says that this is what comes of using treason instead of honest fighting. Charles is angrier still, but Thierry reassures him that he has no love for Girart, because Girart’s father Drogon and uncle Odilon made him an outlaw in the woods for seven years, until Charles restored him to favor and gave him his sister as wife. Charles and Fouque meet in a monastery near Roussillon, and agree to trial by battle, in the field of Vaubeton. The loser will have to travel to the Holy Land as a pilgrim. So many knights come that there are none left anywhere else in France. In the battle, Drogon has a hauberk from the forge of Espandragon [King Uther?] and the sword of Marmion [otherwise unknown]. Nonetheless, Thierry kills him and his brother Odilon. God stops the battle by striking Charles’ and Girart’s standards with lightning, turning them to ashes. The two agree to a five year truce, and that Thierry will be banished.

Meanwhile, in the confusion of the civil war, the Saracens, Saxons and Frisians have all invaded France. Charles marches south first, to deal with Seguran of Syria, who has invaded Gascony. Unbeknownst to him, Girart is there, too, and the brothers-in-law are formally reconciled in Val Pergunde. The French go north to repel King Rabeu [Raimbaut] of Frisia, and Girart serves the king well in other battles over the years. When the five years are up, Girart formally pardons Thierry, and all seems to be well.

It is not well, however, for Girart’s cousins Boson and Seguin (sons of Odilon) murder Thierry and his two sons during a tournament Charles is holding at Pentecost. War again breaks out. Charles sends an ambassador to Girart, who refuses to make peace. Charles defeats Girart in battle after battle, including Mont-Amele, and Civaux. Girart’s men begin to abandon him. Girart is defeated at Civaux, but as he flees he kills some of Charles’ men who have taken sanctuary at a roadside cross, and then goes on to burn down a monastery in which some other men of Charles’ have taken refuge. He then returns to Roussillon, which Charles besieges. Girart insists, against Fouque’s advice, on doing battle in the field. The men of Roussillon are slaughtered, Fouque taken captive, Boson slain. Girart and Bertha head for Hungary, but learn that her family is dead, and they can expect no shelter there. Instead, they settle in Aurillac, where they live as peasants for twenty-two years and do penance for their sins. He becomes a coal-burner, she a seamstress. After twenty-two years, Girart returns to France in disguise and manages to obtain an interview with Queen Elissent by showing her his ring. She recognizes him and obtains his pardon from Charles. For seven years, there is peace. Girart has two sons by his wife after their return. One dies young, but the other grows strong and healthy. Unfortunately, Girart has not learned his lesson about showing favor to the children of peasants: his seneschal, an ex-serf named Guy de Risnel, kills Girart’s son and blames it on Charles, hoping to start the war again. The war does indeed start. Guy repents too late. Girart takes Charles prisoner in battle, but the Pope makes peace, and Girart and Bertha return to Vézelay, to end their days in peace. Bertha sneaks out every night to work on the church, which causes Girart some alarm, until he discovers the reason for her absence. Girart has the body of Saint Mary Magdalene transferred to the monastery of Vézelay, which he joins after Bertha’s death. The wars began in 700, and lasted sixty years, all told, but now he dies in peace and sanctity.

VITA COMITIS GIRARDI

The Vita Girardi is found in its original Latin, and in an old French translation, both of which were printed by P. Meyer in Romania, vol. VII. Scholars agree it was based on the chanson de geste.

Girart is stated to have served under Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, Charles the Bald, and Louis II. He was the son of Drogon, born in Avignon. He married Bertha, daughter of Count Hughes of Sens. Bertha’s sister Eloyse marries King Charles. When Count Hughes dies, his sons-in-law quarrel over his inheritance, which starts the war. Girart loses and spends seven years in the forest, after which he and Bertha go to Eloyse, disguised as pilgrims. The Queen makes peace, but Charles the Bald has wicked counselors, who stir up war. Girart defeats Charles, but forbears to pursue him in his flight. They fight 12 or 13 battles, until an angel bids Charles make peace. Girart and Bertha build monasteries, where miracles happen. Girart’s two sons die a natural death in this version. The mention of miracles reminds the author about earlier events in Girart’s life, so now he relates some more details about the war, telling how Charles took Rousillon by treason, Girart reclaimed it, and God intervened by striking both their standards with lightning. Back in the present, Bertha dies and is buried in Pothièrs. Two years later, Girart dies at Avignon, requesting to be buried by his wife. The folk of Avignon try to keep his body, but they are stricken with a seven-year famine. An angel appears to a monk, bidding him transfer the body. So it is done, and Girart works miracles at his new grave.

GIRART IN ALEXANDRINES

Based on the poem and the Vita, but insists that the king is Charles the Bald. Louis the Pious split his empire between Louis the German, Charles the Bald, and Lothaire, who promptly went to war. Girart stayed neutral. The brothers made a treaty at Verdun. Charles the Bald reigned thirty-two years until his own doctor poisoned him, in 878. Bertha died three yeas after. Girart seven years after Bertha. Before that, though, Girart had a very large territory in southeast France. The kings of Hungary, Span, Sicily, Aragon, Navarre, Galicia, and Seville are all his allies. Fouchier le Marshall is the son of Hernault. Girart has four nephews: Fouque, Gibert, Seguin, Boz, the sons of the Count of Provence. Girart himself is eight feet tall. His children, Eve and Theodore, died young. A description of Poitiers follows, and an account of how the Vandals invaded Roussillon, and the city was destroyed and rebuilt. The author suggests it was named after rossignols [nightingales]. Girart, in sum, has almost as much land as Charles. They marry Bertha and Eloise, the daughters of Count Hugons of Sens. When he dies, his sons-in-law quarrel over his inheritance, despite Bertha’s pleading for peace. Charles lays siege to Roussillon, whereupon the rest of Girart’s fiefs surrender without a fight. Bertha advises Girart to surrender. Girart sends Fouque to Charles, as in the decasyllabic poem. Fouque is about to attack Charles, but courtiers restrain him. Girart is defeated and driven from Roussillon to Poligny, where he is defeated again, and flees with Bertha. They intend to go to King Oton of Hungary, but instead are obliged to live in the woods where Girart works as a charcoal burner. Eventually, the reconciliation takes place as in the Vita. Girart and Betha do good works, but at last Girart asks Charles for Bertha’s fiefs back, whereupon Charles declares war. Girart thinks he’s bluffing, and takes possession of the disputed land, whereupon Charles attacks him. Girart defeats Charles in Flanders and at Soissons, then comes the battle of Valbeton, in Pierre-Pertuise. In the battle, Drogon is killed. After the battle, a truce is made, but no lasting peace. Charles returns home, and Girart and Bertha build monasteries. They bring Saint Eusebius to Pothièrs, and Saint Pontien to Vézelay. Saint Badilon, a bishop, brings the body of St. Mary Magdalene from Aix in Provence to Vézelay. Charles resumes the war and lays siege to Roussillon. Girart’s chamberlain betrays him and opens the gates. Girart manages to retake the castle, but Charles sets fire to it as he retreats, and it is ruined. Girart flees and builds a new castle, Chatillon. Charles lays siege to this one, too. Girart sends Bertha to Provence, and himself retreats to Montargis. He and Charles battle at Sixte, near Pont-sur-Yonne. Girart is victorious, and chases the king all the way to Paris, which he besieges. But God sends an angel to make peace. Girart and Bertha return home to live piously and work miracles and Vézelay and Pothièrs. Bertha and Girart die and his vassals fight over his body, all as in the Vita. Miracles occur at their tombs. The lame are healed, a vandal is blinded, and Bertha appears in glory to the sacristan. A hermit sees seats in Heaven prepared for their souls, as in the Vita.

WAUQUELIN’S GIRART

Is a mere mise en prose of the Alexandrines, with a few details of Burgundian local color.

DAVID AUBERT’S HISTORY OF CHARLES MARTEL

Is based on Wauquelin, but he restores Bertha and Eloyse to their place as princesses of Hungary. According to Aubert, Charles the Hammer was the son of Eustache of Berry, who was son of Duke Gloriant of Berry. Charles married the fair Marcebille, daughter of King Theodorus of France, much against that monarch’s will. He then fell in with Duke Girart of Roussillon, and they became fast friends. They went to Constantinople, where they served the Emperor and had many adventures, before returning home, the one to become King of France, the other to become Duke of Bourgogne. The story then continues as in Wauquelin, only much abridged.

JEAN DE MANSEL

I can find little information on him, but what I have indicates that he did little of interest. He slightly abridged Wauquelin, and the chapbooks that followed him and were based on him presumably did the same, with each new edition being even more corrupt than the one before it.

So much for the fables of Girart of Roussillon, and now let us look at the true history of Girart II of Paris.

The Legend of Charles Martel

The popular muse appears to have combined Charles the Hammer with his grandson Charles the Great. The Hammer has very few romances in which he even features and only one, to my knowledge, in which he is the protagonist. Though Pippin the Short is usually remembered as the father of Charlemagne, Pippin’s father is often forgotten, or replaced with such people as King Rother or Agnolo Michele. Even his great victory over the Muslim hordes at Tours left no trace in the oral tradition, although perhaps it lies beneath some of his grandson’s legendary victories.

There is, however, one romance in which the Hammer has a starring role: David Aubert’s Histoire de Charles Martel. Or at least, he stars in the first part. The bulk of the romance is devoted to the adventures of Girart of Roussillon, Orson of Beauvais, and the Lorrainers. The first part, however, features Charles as the protagonist. Some scholars think it is based on a lost chanson de geste. Be that as it may, the story is clearly very late, and is a typical late Carolingian cliché-fest. As David Aubert has never been printed, the following summary is based on the chapter titles as given in Paul Meyer’s introduction to Girart of Roussillon.

DAVID AUBERT’S LEGEND OF CHARLES MARTEL

Duke Gloriant of Berry lays siege to the city of Lusarne in Spain, which belongs to the Saracens. His eldest son, Huitasse [Eustace] de Berry captures Princess Ydorie of Lusarne from her guardian giant Orrible, and marries her. The Admiral [emir] is furious, takes Gloriant captive, and chases Huitasse away. He returns home to Bourges, whence his brother manages to expel him. As if this were not bad enough, King Theodorus of France [Theuderic IV] learns from his astrologers that the son of Huitasse, named Charles Martel, will be king after him, and plots to kill the lad. Fortunately, Gloriant escapes prison and returns home, where he manages to reconcile his sons. Little Charles is raised by Raimbaut the Marshall and his wife Hermentine, in Paris. He grows of an age to prove himself, and is a wonder. He participates in jousts at Paris, and wins the prize thereof and the love of King Theodorus’ daughter Marsibelle. The two are wed in Avignon. King Theodorus is furious, and imprisons the abbot of Saint-Denis and Count Galleran of Provence for allowing the wedding. He then sends Galleran to arrest his daughter and new son-in-law. Charles is gone, however. He has met Girart of Roussillon and they are adventuring together, en route to Constantinople, where they leave Marsibelle while they adventure. A long war ensues, involving King Agoulant of Jerusalem, king Menelaus of Dammarie, Emperor Belinas of Constantinople, a civil war in France between King Theodorus and Charles’ father Duke Huitasse of Berry, various minor knights and nobles, captivities, rescues, escapes, and all the usual paraphernalia, except, apparently, magic, which does not seem to feature until later in the romance. In the course of these wars, Charles impregnates Menelaus’ daughter Sagramoire. Fortunately for her, she soon marries Agoulant (who has killed Menelaus), and is able to pass off her son Archefer as Agoulant’s. Not till he is grown does she reveal the secret. Meanwhile, peace has been made in France, and King Theodorus has died, leaving the realm to his son Ydrich [Childerich III]. Archefer sees this as a sign that France is weak, and invades with a Saracen army. Charles conquers and converts him. The barons of France all agree to depose the incompetent Ydrich and make Charles king of France. After his coronation, Charles goes overseas with Archefer to convert Sagramoire. Unfortunately, they get caught up in another round of wars. Marsebille leads an army from France to Outremer, but Archefer and Sagramoire kill her. Charles captures his son, and sends him on a quest to Hell, from which, after many adventures, he returns alive, thanks to the enchanters Carniquant, whom he learned from, and Sorbrin, whom he killed and whose book he stole. Archefer presents his father with a great black horse, a gift from Lucifer himself.

Girart of Roussillon now travels to the Holy Sepulchre, and on his way home becomes engaged to Alexandrine, daughter of King Othon of Hungary.

Meanwhile, Duke Hillaire of Aquitaine, brother of Theodorus, wishes to be king of France, now that Ydrich has died. He invades, and very nearly succeeds in driving out Charles Martel, who is, however, saved by Girart. After Hillaire surrenders, Charles and Girart plan to marry the two daughters of King Othon, and the story segues into Girart of Roussillon, in a version which follows that of Wauquelin very closely.

ORIGINS OF THE LEGEND

In actual history, Charles Martel was the bastard son of Pepin II, Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of France. Charles was imprisoned by Pepin’s justly irritated wife Plectruda. When Pepin died in 715, Plectruda became the regent for her six-year-old grandson Theodebald. Charles, aged twenty-five, escaped from prison, a civil war broke out, the Saxons invaded, and King Dagobert III died, probably from assassination (715). The Franks opposed to Charles chose Chilperic II as their king, the son of Childeric I. Charles, while skirmishing with northern invaders, set up his own king: Clotair IV, whose exact relation to the Merovingians is unclear. Chilperic fled to Aquitaine, where Duke Eudes supported him – until Charles threatened to invade. Luckily for everyone, Clotair died, and Charles accepted Chilperic as king. Chilperic II died in 720, and the Franks elected Theuderic IV as king, the son of Dagobert III. The Moors crossed the Pyrenees that same year, and occupied the southern coast of France. Eudes recovered Toulouse in 721, but could not save Narbonne, and after several devastating raids thought it prudent to give his daughter Lampegia to the Muslim governor of Catalonia. Theuderic IV died in 727, and Charles never bothered replacing him. In 732, Abdelrahman, the Emir of Spain, attempted to conquer all of France, drove Eudes out of Aquitaine, but was defeated and slain by Eudes and Charles at the Battle of Tours [Poitiers]. In 735, Eudes died. Charles attempted to seize his territory, but was eventually obliged to leave Eudes’ son Hunauld in possession, though as his vassal. Charles next attempted conquering southwestern France, but failed to accomplish anything of value besides reclaiming Avignon for the Christians. Indeed, he often  seemed more interested in fighting Christians then the Saracens, and burned the Christian cities of Nîmes, Agde, and Beziers on his way back to the north to fight the Saxons. In 739, however he was recalled to the south by King Liutprand of Lombardy, in concert with whom he drove the Saracens (slightly) back to the west. Charles died in 741, and was succeeded as Mayor by his sons Carloman and Pepin III the Short. Faced with rebellions on every hand, including from their bastard brother Grifon, the joint Mayors raised Childeric III to the throne in 743, to help restore order. No one knows how Childeric was related to the Merovingian line, if he even really was. The rebellions were put down, Carloman retired to a monastery in 747, and Pepin, by permission of Pope Zacharias, sent Childeric to a monastery in 751 and crowned himself King. In 754 Pope Stephen II travelled to Paris to consecrate Pepin and his sons Carloman and Charles as patrici Romanorum, and forbade the people of France, under pain of excommunication, to ever take a king who was not of their family

As can be seen, there is only the vaguest resemblance between actual history and David Aubert’s romance.

Thus Charles Martel became King of France, and now let us turn to various knights who lived during his reign and what befell them, to wit:

Girart of Roussillon

Orson of Beauvais

Auberi le Bourguignon