The Dagobert Cycle Family Tree

The following is a composite family tree of the Merovingians, according to the legendary chansons de geste known as the Dagobert Cycle. Specifically, it is based on Dieudonné of Hungary (Charles le Chauve)Octavian, Florence of Rome, Ciperis of Vignevaux, and Theseus of Cologneand centered on Dagobert I, known as Le Bon Roi Dagobert, “Good King Dagobert.”

Family Tree of Dagobert I – Legendary

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The Legend of Dieudonné of Hungary

The legend of Dieudonné of Hungary survives in only one MSS: A 17,500 line chanson de geste in monorhymed Alexandrines, also known as Charles le Chauve. Despite that name, it is set in the days of the Merovingians, not of Charlemagne’s grandson. To avoid confusion, we will be referring to the legend and chanson as Dieudonné of Hungary.

The MS. in question is BnF Fr. 24372, which is incomplete at the end. There are partial editions, but no complete ones, and of course no English translation.

DIEUDONNÉ OF HUNGARY

King Clotaire of France had no heirs at his death, so the Twelve Peers met to choose his successor. An angel of the Lord appeared to tell them to choose no king, but to wait for the coming of King Melsiau of Hungary, who, though currently a Saracen, would be baptised under the name of Charles the Bald. William of Montfort, a Breton baron, rejects this plan, and readies an army to seize the throne with his faithful companion, Goubaut of Lausanne. At the same time, Melsiau invades, intending to convert the folk to the worship of Mahound. The Peers, flustered, manage to persuade both parties to a truce, and they will both present themselves at Notre-Dame de Riems, where the Holy Ghost will make His will known. As Melsiau approaches the altar, the Holy Ghost appears and places in his hand a vial filled with sacred oil. Melsiau is baptized under the name of Charles, known as the Bald. He melts down his idols and uses the gold to adorn churches, and marries Marguerite, heiress of Berry. They have two sons, Philip and Charlot.

But William and Goubaut are not pleased. They flatter the king while secretly hating him. Charles makes Goubaut the tutor of Prince Philip. Goubaut poisons a barrel of wine and sends it to Philip in the name of Charles. He then throws the squire who delivered it down a well, to silence him. Meanwhile, the Duke of Touraine has tasted the wine and died in agony. Charles wishes to banish his son, but Marguerite persuades him to settle for banishment. Philip is forced to swear to tell no one of his lineage.

Philip learns that King Hilaire of Hungary is besieged in Montluisant by a Saracen giant named Merlangier, and has promised his daughter Doraine to whoever slays the Pagan. As he travels thither, he kills a “monstrous serpent” that ravaged the countryside. He then rests at the home of Goubaut’s kinsman Butor de Saleries, who plots to kill him by night, but Butor’s wife warns Philip, who escapes and comes to Montluisant. Inside the city, he is given lodging by one Joseran, a fellow Frenchman. That same day, a Lombard knight is defeated by Merlangier. His squire, passing though the town, resents Philip’s mockery, and the two fight, and the Lombard is slain. Philip is brought before King Hilaire for murder. He announces that he has come to fight Merlangier, whereupon all is forgiven. Doraine falls in love and gives him a magic ring which will protect him from poison and drowning.

When Philip fights the giant, Merlangier throws him in the river, from which he emerges unfazed and beheads the Saracen. This does not end the war, however, for Merlagier’s brother Soltibran begins a general combat, in which Soltibran mortally wounds Hilaire and is slain in turn by Philip. Hiliare, dying bequeaths his daughter and his kingdom to Philip.

Meanwhile, in France, Butor has strangled his wife and now prepares to follow Philip and kill him, too. Coming to Montluisant, he apologizes to Philip for the unfortunate incident at his house, and lays all the blame on one of his squires, whom he has punished. Credulity seems to run in the family, for King Philip believes him and makes him seneschal.

Doraine conceives a child. Before he is born, however, an angel orders Philip to lead twenty thousand soldiers to save Jerusalem from the Saracens. He departs, leaving Butor in charge. Philip saves Jerusalem and is crowned king by the Patriarch. Meanwhile, Butor has forged letters saying that Philip is dead in Syria, and claims that he was the son of a peasant, banished from France for banditry. He offers to marry Doraine, who refuses him. So instead, he schemes with a midwife to swap her baby for a half-devoured chicken and to pretend the queen ate her child. The baby is abandoned in the woods, but rescued by Guillaume d’Esturgon, a local lord, who sees that he has a cross birthmark on his shoulder, and names him Dieudonné.

Philip, sailing home, is shipwrecked by a storm, and saved only by the magic ring. He washes up on a desert island inhabited only by a hermit, also shipwrecked. There the two remain for eighteen years.

Guillaume raises the young Dieudonné with his own son Mancion and daughter Supplante. Mancion is jealous of his foster-brother’s talent for learning and fighting, but Supplante adores him. Supplante says Dieudonné’s birthmark means he is a king. Mancion laughs and says the only king Dieudonné will ever be is the Twelfth-Night King. Such quarrels as these continue, until at last they fight over a chess game. Mancion pulls a knife and tries to stab Dieudonné, who, however, wrestles the knife away and pierces his foster-brother’s heart. He flees, but Guillaume pursues and overtakes him. Dieudonné will not fight his foster-father, who is touched with pity and banishes him instead of executing him. He decides to wander the earth seeking his birth parents. As he travels, he hears the sad tale of the Queen dowager of Hungary, accused of murdering her own child. He decides to defend her. He gets lost on the road to Hungary, however, and comes to a fountain where three naked young women are swimming. He modestly averts his eyes, and asks them where he can find lodging. They dress and conduct him to the castle of the Fairy Queen, Gloriande. Here a dwarf named Maufumé, who is old enough to remember Noah, challenges him to battle. Dieudonné refuses, so Maufumé leaves, summons a storm, transforms himself into a knight, and jousts with Dieudonné, who with difficulty overcomes him. Maufumé resumes his own shape, announces that Gloriande is in love with Dieudonné, and welcomes him into the castle, which is so beautiful that Dieudonné almost forgets his parents and his beloved Supplante at once. Almost, for when Queen Gloriande offers him her love, he tells her that his heart is pledged to Supplante. She accepts her rejection with grace, and offers him a horn, that can summon seven thousand men when blown; a napkin, which, if the sign of the cross is made over it, will provide bread and meat for a hundred; and a chalice, which will always be full of the world’s best wine. If Dieudonné ever tells a lie, however, the gifts will cease to work for him. Maufumé gives him a sword whose blows are always mortal. Thus arrayed, he departs for Esturgon, where Gloriande tells him his love is waiting.

On the road to Esturgon, Dieudonné kills a man-eating centaur, rescuing its victims from its castle, and winning an enchanted helmet. He arrives at Esturgon, where he invites all the beggars to a feast and feeds them with his napkin and chalice. When Guillaume comes to see what the commotion is about and recognizes his foster-son, he calls his men to seize him, but Dieudonné blows his horn and summons an army, whereupon Guillaume sees the benefits of mercy and gives Supplante to Dieudonné in marriage. Gloriande and three fairies play the music at their wedding, and on their wedding night Dagobert is begotten.

Dieudonné remembers that he was supposed to go rescue the Queen of Hungary, (whom he has learned is really his mother) and leaves his bride in the morning. He arrives at Montluisant and saves her with his fairy army. Unfortunately, Butor escapes and holes up in his castle of Nimègue. Dieudonné now goes to find his father, saving Constantinople from the Saracens on the way, but when he arrives on the island, the hermit tells him that Philip is gone; a ship came by at last and took him away. Dieudonné, suspicious, lies to the hermit about his identity, causing Gloriande’s gifts to lose all their power. To make things worse, Dieudonné is shipwrecked on the Isle of Adamant. Maufumé is given permission to go help him, but only on condition that he (Maufumé) spend three years in shape of a luiton. The dwarf rescues the prince, and he, having never lied, is able to use the napkin and chalice to feed Dieudonné and the crew. They return to Gloriande, who restores Dieudonné’s ability to use them as well.

Dieudonné now returns to Montluisant, where he learns that Philip is at Nimègue, where Butor has persuades him that Queen Doraine murdered their son, and that the man pretending to be Dieudonné is actually Queen Doraine’s lover, who has changed his shape by magic. Dieudonné cannot fight his father, lest he break the power of the gifts again, and so he slips away, leaving his mother to the tender mercies of her husband and Butor.

Here there is a lacuna in the only manuscript.

When the story resumes, Emperor Charles the Bald, King Philip, and Dieudonné have reconciled and are accusing Goubaut and Butor of treason. In a two-on-two duel, Philip and Dieudonné mortally wound their opponents, who confess everything before dying. Everyone is happy and content.

Or they would be, if Goubaut’s kinsmen were not trying to take over France in Charles’ absence. Charles, Philip, and Dieudonné ride to raise the siege of Rheims, but they have the worse of the battle. Dieudonné is unhorsed, taken captive, and bound. With great difficulty, he loosens his bonds enough to raise his horn to his mouth. He blows a mighty blast, the fairy army arrives, and the kings are victorious. Unfortunately, the traitors escape. The royalty pursue them to Lausanne, leaving Doraine and Supplante in Montluisant, where they are besieged by the pagan King Joshua of Majorca and Almería, who has fallen on love with Supplante by report. He hires the famous enchanter Balan of Ascalon, who helps him capture the city. Doraine leaps out a window to keep her chastity, Supplante is made a captive of Joshua, and Balan kidnaps the infant Dagobert to raise as his own son. Touched by pity, he also provides Supplante with a chastity-preserving ring.[1] Thus she lives chastely for several years in Almería.

After successfully defeating the traitors in Lausanne, Charles, Philip, and Dieudonné learn of the fate of their womenfolk. Dieudonné heads for the sea and sets sail for Almería, destroying the navy of the Sultan of Damascus en route, thanks to his enchanted horn. He slays the Sultan and rescues his fiancée, Princes Corsabrine of the Indies, whom he proceeds to deflower, thereby causing the fairy gifts to lose their power a second time. He is unaware of this, however, and confidently attacks Almería. Without the fairy horn, his entire army is destroyed. Corsabrine is taken captive by King Joshua, and Dieudonné manages to escape in a dinghy which eventually washes up near the Roman campagna. King Joshua happens to be the nephew of the Sultan of Damascus, so Corsabrine tells him that she is pregnant with the Sultan’s child (really it is Dieudonné’s). Joshua swears to install her and her son (if the child is male) as rulers of Damascus.

Meanwhile, Emperor Valerian of Rome is being attacked by the heathen King Abel of Acre. Dieudonné offers his services, but he and Valerian are taken prisoner. The Pope orders every priest, monk, cardinal, and bishop to take up arms, and this second army manages to drive the Saracens away, but not to rescue the prisoners, who are taken to Syria, where they enslaved and set to hard labor. After a year or so, King Abel decides to marry the beautiful Sultana Corsabrine of Damascus and become guardian of her son. Joshua approves the marriage, and it is done. Dieudonné seeks permission to attend to festivities, but the overseer simply laughs and beats him. Dieudonné and Valerian snap and begin slaying many Saracens with whatever comes to hand, but they are overcome and led in chains before Abel and Corsabrine, who takes some time recognize Dieudonné. When she does, however, she secretly consults with him, offering him freedom if he will take her back to France and wed her. But this he cannot do, for he is married already. The Sultana is furious, informs him that she was secretly baptized for love of him, and finally orders him and Valerian thrown in the dungeon, to be fed on black bread and hot water.

King Abel invites all his allies to come watch the execution of Dieudonné and Valerian. Queen Supplante is very much alarmed when the invitation comes. Without waiting for her alleged husband, she sets sail to save her true one. She persuades the King of Acre to postpone the execution, and bceoms the confidante of Corsabrine. Supplante admits she is still a Christian, and Corsabrine tells how Dieudonné is the father of her child, but refuses to marry her. Supplante is filled with very mixed emotions at this news, but at last she persuades Corsabrine that Dieudonné was just testing her, and will surely be glad to take her to France and marry her if she asks again. The two queens go to the dungeon, where a very awkward reunion and explanations ensue. At last though, all are content, and Supplante gives Corsabrine her magic ring.

That night, the two queens, their chamberlain Griffon, and the two prisoners flee Damascus, murdering the porter as they go. As they travel west, they meet King Joshua of Almería coming east. They attack him, Joshua is slain, but his men take the Christians prisoner. Corsabrine accuses the men of having kidnapped her, and is thus returned to Damascus in honor. Supplante claims to be pregnant with Joshua’s child, and is taken back to Almería with the three men, who, however, are thrown in a dungeon overlooking the sea. When the waves cause a portion of the wall to crumble, Dieudonné breaks his chains, takes his leave of his companions, and leaps into the sea.

At this juncture, who should arrive but Maufumé, in form of a luiton, who is sent by Gloriande to rescue Dieudonné and to restore him his napkin, chalice, and horn. He carries the man to Ascalon, where Dieudonné’s son Dagobert is being raised by King Balan, the enchanter. In the city, Maufumé shape-shifts into a monkey, and Dieudonné dresses as a jongleur. They play at the king’s banquet, until Maufumé siezes a knife and stabs a Saracen. Balan calls for his arms, and prepares to work his magic, but Maufumé shape-shifts into a fire-breathing serpent, then into a flying dragon, and causes a lightning-storm. Balan is amazed, and says that the devils who have taught him much can do no such tricks. Maufumé explains that he is a Fairy, that the jongleur is Dieudonné, father of the young Dagobert. He offers to pardon the magician if he will accept Holy Baptism. So it is done, and now Dieudonné, Maufumé, Dagobert, and Balan go to Almería, where, thanks to the fairy horn, they resuce Supplante and kill or convert all the Saracens. They return home to Montluisant at last. Dieudonné wishes to go to Damascus and rescue Corsabrine, but Supplante, jealous, will not hear of it, and persuades him not to. This was a great mistake, and much woe came to Christendom because of it, for Sultan Abel of Damascus invades Rome, captures the Emperor and his son Othovian, and beheads the Supreme Pontiff.

Meanwhile, Charles the Bald has died, and Philip is now King of France. Dieudonné and his horn save Philip from the traitor Amaury of Brittany, who had already been crowned king at Paris. To punish the Parisians for their part in the rebellion, Dieudonné ordains that the kings shall henceforth be consecrated at Rheims. An angel tells Dieudonné that he may not inherit the throne, but must do penance for his sins in a hermitage. Dieudonné renounces his rights, leaving Dagobert at court to be Philip’s heir, and retires with Supplante to a wild spot near Blaye, on the Gironde, where after living lives of holiness, they are murdered by robbers. God works many miracles through them, and they are known as Saint Honoré and Saint Foi. Corsabrine, when she dies, will be known as Saint Innocent of Paris, her baptismal name.

Here the only manuscript ends. It would appear that it was meant to lead into some version of Florent and Octavian.

ORIGINS AND INFLUENCE

The author knew and drew from Le Chevalier au Cygne, Huon de Bordeaux. The poem is very similar to Baudoin of Sebourg, Tristan de Nanteuil, Floovant, and Hugh Capet, among others, though it is unclear which came first.

The pagan origins of Charles the Bald, and that name being applied to a Merovingian, seem to be our author’s inventions. The ring that preserves from drowning is a new twist on an old idea, as is the final scene between Balan and Maufumé. The bulk of Diuedonné’s aventures, however, are slavishly copied from those of Huon and the Swan Knight.

The real Saint Honoré (Honoratus of Amiens) was a bishop of Amiens who died May 16, around 600. He was chosen as patron by the Parisian baker’s guild in the 1400’s, on account of a legend that his old nursemaid had been incredulous when she heard that he had been elected bishop, and refused to believe it unless her peel grew into a tree. It did so, and she believed.

The real Saint Foi was a young woman from Agen in Aquitaine, burned to death on October 6 under Diocletian. She is not to be confused with Saint Faith, the daughter of Saint Sophia and sister of Saints Hope and Charity.

The real Saint Innocent was a man, the first Pope of that name, in the 400’s. Perhaps our author misunderstood the meaning of the Cimetière des Saints-Innocents (The Holy Innocents) in Paris.

[1] Paris here says (p. 112) that the secret is that of the fairy Viviane, who ensnared Merlin this way, but this appears to be his comment, not that of the jongleur.

Let thus much suffice for Dieudonné of Hungary, and let us now turn, as the minstrels intended, to Florent and Octavian.

The Legend of Ciperis of Vignevaux

The legend of Ciperis de Vignevaux survives in the following versions:

A chanson de geste from the mid 1300’s in rhymed alexandrines, surviving only in one badly damaged manuscript, which also includes the Enfances Doon de Mayence.

Histoire du Noble Roy Silperic de Vinevaux qui fut Roy de France. A highly abridged mise en prose, from the court of Burgundy. The oldest surviving copy is from no later than 1467. It was printed in the 1500’s, made its way into the Bibliothèque Bleue, and was last printed in 1842. The Burgundian manuscript has been printed under by Laura Ramello under the title: Un mito alla corte di Borgogna: Ciperis de Vignevaux in prosa.

There are, of course, no English translations.

The following summary of the story is taken from William Woods’ edition and the account in Histoire Litteraire de la France XXVI, by Paulin Paris. Passages in italics represent lacunae in the verse, and are supplied from the prose.

Vignevaux is, or was, a forest in Normandy, apparently near Caux. In these woods Philippe, son of King Clotaire of France, makes love to Clarisse, daughter of Duke Marcus of Orleans, and produces an illegitimate son, Ciperis [Chilperic]. When their love is made known, Phillippe is banished and becomes King of Hungary. How he does so is unknown, but these adventures seem to have been based on those of Philippe in Dieudonne of Hungary. Ciperis is raised at the court of his uncle King Dagobert.

Clotaire was the thirteenth king of France, in the year 632. He was not the Clotaire who was son of Clovis. This Clotaire had three sons: Dagobert, Ludovis, and Philippe, in that order. Philippe was sent to the court of Duke Marcus of Orleans, where he fell in love with and seduced Marcus’ daughter Clarice. Since the punishment for adultery in those days was burning at the stake, they fled to the Forest of Vignevaux, now called the Forest of Eu. There they were separated by bandits. Philippe, under the impression the bandits had taken Clarice to Paris, hurried thither and left her in the woods, where she fell in with a hermit. In the meantime, Duke Marcus had put two and two together, gone to Paris, and obtained a sentence of exile for Philippe and Clarice. Philippe reaches Paris, hears of his banishment, and flees to Hungary before being recognized. There he serves the king so well that he wins his daughter’s hand in marriage.

Meanwhile, Clarice is nearing her time to give birth, so the hermit sends for Marguerite, wife of the local lord Foucaut. Unfortunately, Foucaut, though Christian, is a giant and a tyrant, and Marguerite has to slip out of the castle to serve as midwife. He tracks her to the hermit’s hut, arriving just after Clarice gives birth, while the hermit is out gathering food. He takes the women back to his castle, leaving the baby. The hermit returns, grieves, and baptizes the boy Ciperis of Vignevaux. Ciperis has a fleur-de-lis birthmark on his shoulder. A goat miraculously agrees to suckle him, for seven years, and the hermit teaches him to read and hunt.

King Clotaire dies, and Dagobert his son becomes king. When Ciperis is ten, he gets lost in the woods and is found by King Guillaume of England, who takes him back to Paris. King Dagobert wishes to adopt the foundling, but Guillaume refuses to give him up, and takes him to London, where he raises him alongside his daughter, princess Hermine. When Ciperis is still a squire, he overthrows King Henri of Norway in a tourney, incurring his undying hatred. The king masked it, however, and invited Ciperis to hunt with him, planning to kill him. He leaves him for dead, but Ciperis is only unconscious, recovers, and returns to court, angrily storming into King Guillaume’s palace just as the princess is getting suspicious of Henri. Ciperis tells all, King Henri denies all, and they agree to trial by combat. Dagobert arrives to support the foundling and dub him a knight. Ciperis wins the duel, but Henri is pardoned. He makes an alliance with certain English nobles, including the Duke of Lancaster, to whom he offers his sister Florence in marriage. These nobles take Ciperis hunting and try to kill him, but he foils them and kills many of their men. Unfortunately, he also kills King Guillaume in the confusion. Ciperis flees to France and returns to the woods of his birth, where he meets the hermit (who has thought him dead). Hermine enters a nunnery.

The hermit tells Ciperis the truth of his origins, and that his mother is still a captive of the giant Foucaut, who has openly relapsed into Islam. Ciperis, with the help of some charcoal burners (especially one named Hellie), kills the giant, frees Clarice and Marguerite, and becomes lord of the castle.

In Paris, meanwhile, Prince Stephen of Provence has fallen in love wih Dagobert’s daughter Orable, who despises him. He tries to kiss her by force, so she slaps him so hard that she knocks two of his teeth out. He swears revenge, and tells her father that she is sleeping with the king’s chamberlain. King Dagobert goes to his daughter’s chamber, sees her playing chess with the man with no one else in the room, and in his fury beheads the chamberlain at once. The witness is dead, no one dares challenge Stephen to trial by combat, and Stephen bribes the nurses to falsely report that Orable has lost her maidenhood. As Orable is led to the stake to be burnt, the people raise such an outcry that the king is forced to commute her sentence to banishment. As she wanders southward, Stephen ambushes her in the forest of Vignevaux. Fortunately, Ciperis is out hunting, hears her cry, and resuces her. She conceals her identity, but he takes her back to his castle and makes her his mistress. She conceives twins that very night: Theirry and Clovis. Over the next fourteen years they have seventeen sons:

1: Theirry, King of France. [Theoderic III]
2: Clovis, King of France. [Clovis IV]
3: Galehaut, King of Navarre.
4: Ferrant, King of Brittany.
5: Guillaume, King of England.
6: Bochiquaut, King of Norway.
7: Amaury, King of Ireland.
8: Gracien, Lord of Denmark, who was killed by a pagan maned Justmon and canonized by the Pope.
9: Paris, King of Frisia.
10: Gloriant, King of Cyprus
11: Louis, King of Germany.
12: Samson, King of Gascony
13: Amadas, a great lover and a famous.
14: Alart.
15: Morant.
16: Clariant.
17: Ciperis the Younger, King of Jerusalem and a Saint.

When the youngest is of an age to be dubbed, Ciperis takes the whole family to a tounament in Paris, which they win. They reveal their identites, Dagobert is thrilled to be reunited with his daughter and his nephew, and Ciperis and Orable are finally married. Dagobert rebukes Ciperis for killing Guillaume, and Ciperis decieds to make amends by reconquering England for Hermine. He does so, and offers her whichever of his sons she pleases as her husband. She chooses Guillaume, for that he has the same name as her father.

For various reasons, usually justifiable vengeance, Ciperis now sets out on a series of conquests, thereby winning a kingdom and a wife for each of his other eighteen sons. However, the poet does not develop all of the episodes. It is possible that he intended to include an episode for each son. If so, he must have seen that his work was becoming too long to hold his audience’s attention and cut his materials short. The last nine sons are disposed of in a rather hurried fashion.

The surviving poem opens with the crowning of Guillaume as king of England and his marriage to Hermine. Ciperis and his men return to France. Galadre, brother of the deceased king of Norway, swears vengeance on Ciperis and calls on all his friends to help. Ciperis’ sons distinguish themselves in a tourney at Paris…

Lacuna…Galadre conquers England.

Galadre has captured all of England while Guillaume is tourneying, and he sails for Vignevaux. Dagobert pledges to help Ciperis, who rides to the attack. Galadre is defeated and retreats…

Lacuna…Details of the war.

Another battle ends in England and Canterbury is captured. London is then recaptured by a strategem: having taken Galadre prisoner, Guillaume dons his armor and bids his men take the armor of Norwegians slain in the battle. They infiltrate the city and sieze it. The French prepare to leave for Denmark. They pass through Scotland, and Amaurris marries Princess Aeslis of Ireland. Paris marries Princess Symonne of Scotland. King Andrew of Scotland joins the expedition. Denmark is captured, and Gracien marries Salemonde and becomes king of Denmark. Dagobert defeats the Norwegians and marries Flourette, their queen, to Bouchiquaut. (Flourette had become queen when her father Fendu was slain by Ciperis in England). Frise is captured, and Enguerran becomes ruler thereof and husband of Avice. Emperor Oursaire of Germany decides to help his defeated friends, but is defeated by Dagobert and Ciperis and becomes their ally. Oursaire’s daughter Aragonde weds Louis. They will have a son, Guitequin, who will later feature in Theseus of Cologne.

Hellie, a former charcoal burner, is one of the most valiant French knights. The French army is divided; Oursaire goes to help Phillippe of Hungary and Dagobert goes to recapture France and Paris from the King of Navarre. Ciperis travels via Vignevaux to Paris, which he helps Dagobert recapture. Dagobert entrusts his son Louis to Ciperis, but the treacherous Robert d’Aumarle (whose father Isoré was slain by Hellie in England) poisons the prince. Dagobert thinks Ciperis is the culprit, and swears vengeance. Ciperis takes him prisoner, but he refuses to make peace. Oursaire learns that Phillippe is the father of Ciperis and sends for his aid. Hellie reveals the true murderer of Louis, and Ciperis, Dagobert, and his brother Ludovis join forces. Dagobert has to subdue Guy of Provence, who has treacherously seized Paris. Guy escapes to Hungary and renounces Christianity. The Christians successfully invade Hungary, and Phillippe marries Clarisse, mother of Ciperis. Ciperis then goes to Scotland. During this time Dagobert dies and Ludovis [Clovis II] ascends the throne. Ciperis is annoyed and makes war on Ludovis. In the course of this war, we are told that Thierri of Vignevaux will later found the Abbey of Saint-Vaast, and that a bear helped build the abbey.

Ludovis’ wife Baudour [Bathilde] ends the war by reconciling the foes. (Baudour is the sister of Theseus of Cologne). The pagan princess Salatrie (whose father Aquilant was slain in Hungary) conquers Cologne, slaying Emperor Orsaire. Ciperis goes to the rescue. Salatrie becomes Christian and marries Ciperis, the youngest son of Ciperis. The French return home. Ludovis dies. Cipereis conquers Spain. Bouchiqualt becomes King of Navarre. Sanson, king of Gascony. Ciperis, king of France. He is succeeded by his sons Thierri [III] and then Clovis [IV]. Allart gets Artois. Louys gets Vignevaux. Sanson gets Flanders. Amadas gets Noyon. Ferrans gets Brittany. Morant is left with nothing. Even Hellie becomes lord of Normandy.

HISTOIRE DU NOBLE ROY SILPERIC DE VINEVAUX QUI FUT ROY DE FRANCE
[THE STORY OF THE NOBLE KING CHILPERIC OF VIGNEVAUS WHO WAS KING OF FRANCE]

The prose highly abridges the original, and makes a few slight changes, but none of importance.

I can find no detailed information on the chapbooks, but I presume they followed the typical pattern of becoming shorter and more corrupt with every edition.

ORIGINS AND INFLUENCE

Most of what follows is taken from William Wood and Paulin Paris:

The author, or perhaps the scribe, was namd Brienchon. The rhymes and meter are generally smooth. The episodes are pure boilerplate with no originality, and are “lacking in the dignity and loftiness of the earlier epics.” The author criticizes the wealthy, which has led some to believe he himself was poor. He was probably not a clergyman, or at least not an educated one. The poem alludes to Theseus de Cologne, and draws material from Charles the Bald. The author’s knowledge of geography is limited to Picardy and Paris; all else is fanciful. His frequent mention of the abbeys of Saint-Denis, Saint-Pierre de Corbie, and Saint-Vaast of Arras suggests that he had some personal attachment to one or more of them. He knew that they were founded by Dagobert I, Saint Bathilde [wife of Clovis II], and Thierri III, respectively, though he freely changes the circumstances for his poem. According to Alcuin’s Life of Saint Vaast, the saint drove away a ferocious bear from the site where the abbey was being built.

“The author is at his best in depicting certain psychological elements. Robert d’Aumarle’s efforts to avoid fighting are well done. Likewise the anger and sulking of Dagobert after the death of Louis, Ciperis’ patient treatment of him and his righteous indignation refuses the offers of reconciliation, the blow to Ciperis’ pride when he is not consulted about the crown after the death of Dagobert, and the handling of the Salatrie incident when she wants to marry a son of Ciperis testify to an excellent recorder of human emotions. The author seems to be fond of moralizing and has scattered a number of proverbs and sentnetious statements throughout the work.” – Wood.

Krappe has suggested that the poem is from the early 1400’s, based on events that occurred between 1396 and 1410. Emperor Charles IV’s son Sigismund wed Mary, daughter of King Louis the Great of Hungary, in 1377. Through her inherited the Hungarian crown in 1387. The Turks soon after invaded Bulgaria and Serbia. In 1395 Sigismund marched against them and recovered Nicopolis. Queen Mary then died, obliging Sigismund to return home and secure his throne. King Charles VI of France, at the urging of the Pope, sent his cousin John the Fearless, son of the Duke of Burgudy, with 12,000 men to help Sigismund. Sultan Bazajet, however, annihilated the Christian coalition in Serbia. Morons, where much of the Hungarian war takes place, is perhaps Maronia, a region on the Adriatic, south of Spalato.

Most scholars (of those few who have given any attention to this poem) reject these identifications as fanciful. The disastrous battle of Nicopolis would never have been turned into a victory, and the only thing the author knows about the real Hungary is that it breeds fine horses. The language likewise indicates that the poem was written in the mid 1300’s.

In the poem, the sucession of kings is Dagobert, his brother Ludovis, Ciperis, and Ciperis’ sons Thierri and Clovis. The real Dagobert I was brother of King Charibert II of Aquitaine, and father of Clovis II of Neustria and Burgundy, and Sigibert III of Austrasia. Clovis II begot Childerich II of Austrasia, Chlothar III of Neustria and Burgundy, and Thierri III, who inherited the entire kingdom of the Franks by outliving his brothers. Thierri III begot Clovis IV.

Gracien, lord of Denmark, is perhaps Saint Gatianus, first Bishop of Tours. Saint Ciperis the Younger seems to be made of whole cloth; there is no Saint Chilperic.