The Legend of Orson of Beauvais

The legend of Orson of Beauvais is found in only one version: a chanson de geste of about 3,700 rhymed alexandrines, written around 1180-1200, surviving in only one manuscript, written in Lorraine in the late 1200’s.

There are also allusions to the story in Valentine and Orson and in David Aubert’s History of Charles Martel.

ORSON OF BEAUVAIS

In the reign of Charles Martel, Duke Orson of Beauvais helps the king win a war against the rebellion Count Hugh of Berry. After the war, Orson and Hugh become companions. Orson marries Aceline, daughter of Count Huon of Auvergne, and has by her a son, Milon. Hugh stands godfather to the boy. Hugh, unfortunately, falls in love with Aceline. He sneaks into Orson’s chamber at night and pretends to be an angel, ordering him to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land with Hugh. Orson is suspicious and searches the chamber, but Hugh has gone out the window, and Orson, finding no one, concludes it must have been a real vision. Aceline, woeful, gives Orson a gold ring to send her as a token.

Hugh and Orson travel through France and Italy to Barlette, where Hugh sells Orson to Saracen slavers, subjects of King Isoré of Conibres. Hugh also steals Aceline’s ring. The Saracens offer Orson a chance to convert, which he refuses, and so they imprison him.

Hugh, meanwhile, has bought palm leaves from a Hungarian pilgrim, and now returns home with an elaborate false story: Orson had confessed to him that he had been part of a plot to assassinate King Charles, and to do penance therefore he had decided to become a monk at the Holy Sepulchre. He died shortly afterward, and he begged Hugh to marry his widow, take his fiefs, and raise his son. Charles Martel protests that since Hugh stood godfather to Aceline’s child, it would be incest to marry her. Milon also protests the wedding, as Aceline has no interest in marrying Hugh and neither son nor mother believes that Orson is really dead. Hugh administers a judicious mixture of flattery and bribery to Charles, and the wedding is held, but fortunately, Aceline’s chambermaid gives her a herb she bought from a Slavic merchant which leaves Hugh impotent.

Hugh tries to kill Milon, but a kitchen boy warns Aceline, who arranges for the boy to escape with his tutor Guinemand. (It is never stated how old Milon is at the time, but he is already a strong warrior, though still just a lad.). Hugh beats Aceline and throws her in prison, feeding her once every three days. Meanwhile, Milon refuses to take charity from his mother’s kinsmen, and instead heads for foreign lands. On the way, he and Guinemand pass through Berry, and unfortunately arrive at the castle of Baudri of Bourges, a kinsman of Hugh, who discovers their identity and seizes them, despite Milon’s resistance. He plans to hang them, but his castellan, whose life Orson once saved, persuades him to wait until Hugh can come and watch. Baudri foolishly agrees, and the castellan helps the prisoners escape. The guards sound the alarm, and Baudri pursues, but Guinemand kills him and the fugitives escape, passing through southern France, crossing Roncesvalles, and at last arriving at Compostela. There they take service with some Norman knights who go to succor King Basile of Bile against the Saracen Isoré of Conibres. One of the knights, Forcon, recognizes Milon by his resemblance to Orson, under whom he once served in a war against Floclart of Senlis. The Normans reach Bile, Basile dubs Milon a knight, and Milon and  Princess Oriente fall in love. Milon distinguishes himself in battle as Oriente looks on. He fights Isoré, and in the course of trading taunts he reveals that his father Orson was sold to the infidels. Isoré briefly wonders if it could be the Christian he’s holding in his dungeon. The Saracens are repelled.

Basile offers Oriente’s hand to Milon, who accepts it, but refuses to marry her until he has punished Hugh. Isoré returns with an even larger army, but Milon kills him, and the Christians conquer Conibres. They kill the men and baptized the women. Orson is freed from his seven-year’s imprisonment and reunited with his son.

Meanwhile, Hugh has decided to burn Aceline at the stake. Orson’s vassal Count Doon of Clermont, however, rescues her, and a war ensues. Hugh deceives Charles into taking his side, and they lay siege to Clermont, where Aceline and Doon are. The siege lasts six months. Charles at last tells Hugh that he must put Aceline away, and gives him his own niece for his new wife. On the wedding night, the besieged sneak into Charles’ camp and make off with the food.

Orson and company, having visited Jerusalem and bathed in the Jordan, make their way home via Acre, Venice and Rome to France, much to the surprise of the besieged and the besiegers. Hugh, stunned, invents a new story that Orson became a Templar as penance for his attempted assassination of Charles, and begged Hugh to pretend he was dead so as not to embarrass his family. Charles, bewildered, arranges a trial by combat. Milon obtains a dispensation of his godfilial duties from an archbishop in order to fight Hugh and wins. Hugh is hanged in full armor, Orson regains Beauvais, and Milon turns down the offer of Charles’ newly-widowed niece in order to return to Princess Oriante. The poem ends with the statement that he had to endure many hardships before he was wed to her.

VALENTINE AND ORSON

At one point in the story of Valentine and Orson, the titular Orson and his brother-in-law the Green Knight travel to Jerusalem with a knight named Hugh, who has them imprisoned by the Saracens and then forges letters from them saying they intend to stay in Jerusalem fighting the heathens. It is not quite clear whether this is a direct borrowing from Orson of Beauvais or just an odd coincidence.

DAVID AUBERT

There can be no doubt, however, that David Aubert’s brief mentions of Orson of Beauvais are owing to the poem. When Charles Martel is fighting Duke Hilaire of Aquitaine, Count (not Duke) Orson of Beauvais is his standard-bearer and distinguishes himself in battle. Hugh is fighting alongside Charles against Hilaire, even though later on he will sell Orson to the Saracens, which is a story David says he does not choose to tell.

SOURCES AND INFLUENCE

There is no historical basis for anything or anyone in the poem, except Charles Martel. Beauvais was never a duchy and never had a lord named Orson.

The lands of Bile and Conibres may be the Portuguese provinces of Beira and Coimbra, or they may be purely imaginary. Bile may also be the same as the Land of Bire, home to King Vivien at the end of the Oxford Roland.

The king in the poem is sometimes called Charles Martel, and sometimes Charlemagne. Since none of the Paladins or the other usual companions of Charlemagne appear, it is most likely that the original intent was Charles Martel.

The poem ends promising a sequel, but if any such was ever written, it is now lost. Perhaps it was never meant to be more than an exciting ending.

Some tapestries (now lost) were made in the 1400’s depicting scenes from the story.

There is a translation in modern French by Michel Lefèvre, which is available from the Beauvais tourist office. There are no English versions of the story.

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The Legend of Girart of Roussillon – Origins and Influence

ORIGINS OF THE LEGEND

Girart of Roussillon, Girart of Vienne, and Girart of Euphrate are all inspired by the same historical figure: Girart II, Count of Paris, born 810, ascended 837, died c. 878.

Now Girart I of Paris had married Rotrude (who may have been the daughter of Carloman, son of Charles Martel), and founded the Girardid dynasty of Counts of Paris. His three sons, Stephen, Begon, and Leuthard I, succeeded him in turn as Counts. Leuthard I had two sons: Girart and Adalard. Adalard served as King Louis the Pious’ seneschal, and Girart became Count of Paris. Meanwhile, Count Hugh of Tours had two daughters: Bertha and Ermengarde. Girart II married Bertha sometime before 819, and Ermengarde married Lothair I, son of Louis the Pious and king of Middle Francia, Bavaria, and Italy, and Emperor of the West. In 836, Girart was sent on official business to Italy. In 837, he was made Count of Paris. He lost the title in 841, when he took the side of Lothair I against King Charles the Bald and broke down the bridges across the Seine to inconvenience the latter. Girart was among Lothair’s soldiers at the Battle of Fontenoy in 841, when that king and his nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine were decisively defeated by Louis the German and Charles the Bald. Lothair nonetheless made Girart his count of the palace in 842. When Lothair I died in 855, his son Charles, still a child, inherited Provence as his kingdom, and Girart became his regent. In 860, Girart repelled a band of Vikings who had sailed up the Rhone. The following year, Charles the Bald attempted to disinherit his nephew, but he was repelled, possibly by Girart, and returned to France. Around this time, Girart and Bertha founded the monasteries of Vézelay and Pothièrs. In 863, Charles of Provence died young and childless, and his lands passed to his brother Lothair II, King of Lotharingia, for whom Girart continued to administer them until that king’s death in 869, whereupon his territories were divided by his uncles Louis the German and Charles the Bald. Charles went to occupy Provence, but met with resistance from Girart and Bertha. Charles laid siege to Vienne, which was ably defended by Bertha while Girart was holding another castle nearby. Charles, however, first burnt all the lands around Vienne and then promised the people mercy if they surrendered. The people told Bertha they wished to surrender, Bertha send word to Girart, and Girart formally surrendered to Charles on Christmas Eve, 870. The couple went into retirement in their fiefs near Avignon, where Girart died between 877 and 879. He was buried in the abbey of Pothièrs, in Langres, where once could be seen Girart’s tomb on the Gospel side of the chapel, Bertha’s on the Epistle, and, in front of the altar, an epitaph for their infant son Thierry.

Bedier would have it, as usual, that the legend was created in the 11th or 12th century by some minstrel who had heard or read the monks’ chronicles of their founder, Girart. He argues that the only similarities between Girart of Paris and Girart of Roussillon are that they fought a king named Charles, had a wife named Bertha, had a son who died young, and founded certain monasteries, all facts that a minstrel could have learned at the abbey. The minstrels did not, however, know about such striking facts as Girart of Paris’ defeat of the Vikings, his protection of the young prince Charles of Provence against his cruel uncle, Bertha’s protection of Vienne on her own, etc., all things we would expect them to know if the story of Girart had been passed down orally.

Although Saint Badilon is real, the cult of St. Mary Magdalene at Vézelay seems to have been an invention of the eleventh century. Although Girart and Bertha did obtain for their monasteries the relics of Ss. Pontien, Eusebius, Andéol and Ostien, there is no record of the relics of the Magdalen there prior to 1050. Unfortunately for Vézelay, in the mid 1200’s a tomb was discovered in Provence. This tomb was, in reality, a Gallo-Roman tomb of the 500’s with a carving of Pontius Pilate washing his hands and a servant holding the washbasin. The discoverer, however, thought the servant was Mary Magdalene preparing to wash the feet of Christ, and the word went out that St. Mary Magdalene’s tomb had been found. The monks of Vézelay now claimed that they had received their relics from the south, but their popularity declined, and the cult in Provence flourished. Had it not been for this discovery, there would have been no association of the Magdalen with Provence, no tradition of St. Lazarus as bishop, no legend of St. Martha taming the Tarrasque, no Holy Blood, Holy Grail, no Da Vinci Code, and Dan Brown would be an obscure third-rate hack writer, instead of a rich and famous third-rate hack writer.

The relics at Vézelay were destroyed the Protestants during the Wars of Religion, and the church turned into a stable. The relics currently venerated there are replacements sent from elsewhere. The shrine in Provence was destroyed during the Revolution, but the skull was saved and is now in a rebuilt shrine. The most likely candidate for the real relics are those brought to Constantinople in the ninth century, but I can find no information on what became of them afterwards, or if they are still preserved today.

Read more on St. Mary Magdalene here.

Val Pergunde is perhaps Valprionda, a suburb of Cahors.

INFLUENCE

Girart of Roussillon appears already in the Oxford Song of Roland as one of the Twelve Peers, and he dies at Roncesvalles. Later works incorporated him into the elaborate genealogies of the Paladins, and made him the brother of Aymon of Dordone, Doon de Nanteuil, and Bueve d’Aigremont. He plays hardly any role, however, in the poems of the Nanteuil cycle or those of the Aymonids. On occasion he fights alongside his kinsmen, but they seldom if ever, if I recall correctly, allude to the events of his life story as given in his own chansons. Later still, Girart was made into one of the twelve sons of Doon de Mayence. Besides the three mentioned above, the other eight were: Gaufrei (father of Ogier the Dane), Grifon d’Hautefeuile (of Altafoglia, one of the Maganzans), Othon, Ripeus, Seguin of Bordeaux (father of Huon), Pierre (father of the Swan Knight), Morant de Riveirs, and Hernaut de Girone.

Some MSS of Hervis de Metz insert an episode, between Hervis proper and the beginning of Garin le Loherain, wherein Girart is at war with Charles Martel. Charles asks the Pope for permission to tax the Church, reminding him that he has always given generously to her and now needs her help. The Pope agrees, but Girart is on the warpath and nearly at Paris. Charles has enough money now, but not yet enough men, and so, reluctantly, sends to Hervis for aid. Hervis makes ready to go to France, but before he gets there, Girart conveniently dies of illness. He is buried in an abbey he founded at Bar-sur-Aube.

There are other minor references to Girart. Auberi le Bourguignon conflates Girart of Roussillon and Girart of Eufrate in a prologue. Adenet le Roi alludes to the story in Bertha Broadfoot, as does the anonymous Italian who wrote the Entrée en Espagne. Girart is mentioned in some of the chronicles, more usually as the founder of abbeys than as the adversarial brother-in-law of Charles the Bald or Charles the Hammer, or as the real Girart II of Paris.

The Legend of Girart of Roussillon

The legend of Girart of Roussillon is found in the following versions:

Girart de Roussillon. Rhyming decasyllables, 1150, in an artificial dialect that combines French and Provencal.

Vita nobilissimi comitis Gerardi de Rossellon. A Latin saint’s life.

Le Vie de Gerard. A French translation of the Latin life. Can be found with the Latin in Romania, vol. 7, pp. 161-235.

Gerart van Rossilun. A Low German translation of the saint’s life, of which only one page survives.

Girart de Roussillon. Rhyming Alexandrines, 1300’s, based on the decasyllables and the Latin life.

Jehan de Wauquelin’s Girart in prose, 1477, based on the Alexandrines.

David Aubert’s Histoire de Charles Martel, 1448, taken from Wauquelin.

Jean Mansel’s Fleur des Histoires, also from Wauqeulin.

Popular chapbooks, descended from Mansel’s version.

GIRART IN DECASYLLABLES

The poem claims to have been written by a monk named Sestu [Sextus], who began it in the sweet springtime. Charles Martel is holding a joust at Pentecost when word comes that Rome is under siege by the Saracens. Charles and his army travel thither to save the day with the help of the Emperor of Constantinople’s men. In return the Emperor agrees to give his elder daughter Bertha to Charles and his younger, Elissent, to Girart of Roussillon. Girart is sent to fetch them to France. When the girls arrive, however, Charles sees that Elissent is more beautiful, and demands to switch. Girart is furious, and threatens war. Charles offers him as compensation to be released from all his feudal obligations. Girart asks Elissent if she loves him, and she says yes. Thereupon Girart agrees to make peace, so that she can be Queen, and they will love truly and nobly. The double marriage is celebrated. When Charles releases Girart from his vassalage, he keeps only one right: the right to hunt in Girart’s forests. Queen Elissent gives Girart a ring, and the two part with tears. They love truly and nobly.

Some time later, Charles decides to go hunting in Roussillon, without asking leave of Girart. He prepares the hunt with his vassals, and sends a herald to Girart ordering him to do homage for his lands. Girart answers that he and his father before him held the land in alleu [that is, not as a fief, but in their own right], that he has four bold nephews, and that he does not care a fig for Charles’ power. Charles promptly lays siege to Roussillon. The siege lasts all summer, until the King bribes Girart’s seneschal Richier of Sordane, a peasant’s son, to open the gates for him. Girart awakens to find the enemy inside his castle, and he is obliged to flee to Avignon, which he also holds. He raises an army there and returns to reclaim Roussillon. Fouque kills Richier in the battle. Charles, meanwhile, is in Orleans. Girart sends Fouque as messenger to Charles, who is exceedingly displeased. Thierry says that this is what comes of using treason instead of honest fighting. Charles is angrier still, but Thierry reassures him that he has no love for Girart, because Girart’s father Drogon and uncle Odilon made him an outlaw in the woods for seven years, until Charles restored him to favor and gave him his sister as wife. Charles and Fouque meet in a monastery near Roussillon, and agree to trial by battle, in the field of Vaubeton. The loser will have to travel to the Holy Land as a pilgrim. So many knights come that there are none left anywhere else in France. In the battle, Drogon has a hauberk from the forge of Espandragon [King Uther?] and the sword of Marmion [otherwise unknown]. Nonetheless, Thierry kills him and his brother Odilon. God stops the battle by striking Charles’ and Girart’s standards with lightning, turning them to ashes. The two agree to a five year truce, and that Thierry will be banished.

Meanwhile, in the confusion of the civil war, the Saracens, Saxons and Frisians have all invaded France. Charles marches south first, to deal with Seguran of Syria, who has invaded Gascony. Unbeknownst to him, Girart is there, too, and the brothers-in-law are formally reconciled in Val Pergunde. The French go north to repel King Rabeu [Raimbaut] of Frisia, and Girart serves the king well in other battles over the years. When the five years are up, Girart formally pardons Thierry, and all seems to be well.

It is not well, however, for Girart’s cousins Boson and Seguin (sons of Odilon) murder Thierry and his two sons during a tournament Charles is holding at Pentecost. War again breaks out. Charles sends an ambassador to Girart, who refuses to make peace. Charles defeats Girart in battle after battle, including Mont-Amele, and Civaux. Girart’s men begin to abandon him. Girart is defeated at Civaux, but as he flees he kills some of Charles’ men who have taken sanctuary at a roadside cross, and then goes on to burn down a monastery in which some other men of Charles’ have taken refuge. He then returns to Roussillon, which Charles besieges. Girart insists, against Fouque’s advice, on doing battle in the field. The men of Roussillon are slaughtered, Fouque taken captive, Boson slain. Girart and Bertha head for Hungary, but learn that her family is dead, and they can expect no shelter there. Instead, they settle in Aurillac, where they live as peasants for twenty-two years and do penance for their sins. He becomes a coal-burner, she a seamstress. After twenty-two years, Girart returns to France in disguise and manages to obtain an interview with Queen Elissent by showing her his ring. She recognizes him and obtains his pardon from Charles. For seven years, there is peace. Girart has two sons by his wife after their return. One dies young, but the other grows strong and healthy. Unfortunately, Girart has not learned his lesson about showing favor to the children of peasants: his seneschal, an ex-serf named Guy de Risnel, kills Girart’s son and blames it on Charles, hoping to start the war again. The war does indeed start. Guy repents too late. Girart takes Charles prisoner in battle, but the Pope makes peace, and Girart and Bertha return to Vézelay, to end their days in peace. Bertha sneaks out every night to work on the church, which causes Girart some alarm, until he discovers the reason for her absence. Girart has the body of Saint Mary Magdalene transferred to the monastery of Vézelay, which he joins after Bertha’s death. The wars began in 700, and lasted sixty years, all told, but now he dies in peace and sanctity.

VITA COMITIS GIRARDI

The Vita Girardi is found in its original Latin, and in an old French translation, both of which were printed by P. Meyer in Romania, vol. VII. Scholars agree it was based on the chanson de geste.

Girart is stated to have served under Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, Charles the Bald, and Louis II. He was the son of Drogon, born in Avignon. He married Bertha, daughter of Count Hughes of Sens. Bertha’s sister Eloyse marries King Charles. When Count Hughes dies, his sons-in-law quarrel over his inheritance, which starts the war. Girart loses and spends seven years in the forest, after which he and Bertha go to Eloyse, disguised as pilgrims. The Queen makes peace, but Charles the Bald has wicked counselors, who stir up war. Girart defeats Charles, but forbears to pursue him in his flight. They fight 12 or 13 battles, until an angel bids Charles make peace. Girart and Bertha build monasteries, where miracles happen. Girart’s two sons die a natural death in this version. The mention of miracles reminds the author about earlier events in Girart’s life, so now he relates some more details about the war, telling how Charles took Rousillon by treason, Girart reclaimed it, and God intervened by striking both their standards with lightning. Back in the present, Bertha dies and is buried in Pothièrs. Two years later, Girart dies at Avignon, requesting to be buried by his wife. The folk of Avignon try to keep his body, but they are stricken with a seven-year famine. An angel appears to a monk, bidding him transfer the body. So it is done, and Girart works miracles at his new grave.

GIRART IN ALEXANDRINES

Based on the poem and the Vita, but insists that the king is Charles the Bald. Louis the Pious split his empire between Louis the German, Charles the Bald, and Lothaire, who promptly went to war. Girart stayed neutral. The brothers made a treaty at Verdun. Charles the Bald reigned thirty-two years until his own doctor poisoned him, in 878. Bertha died three yeas after. Girart seven years after Bertha. Before that, though, Girart had a very large territory in southeast France. The kings of Hungary, Span, Sicily, Aragon, Navarre, Galicia, and Seville are all his allies. Fouchier le Marshall is the son of Hernault. Girart has four nephews: Fouque, Gibert, Seguin, Boz, the sons of the Count of Provence. Girart himself is eight feet tall. His children, Eve and Theodore, died young. A description of Poitiers follows, and an account of how the Vandals invaded Roussillon, and the city was destroyed and rebuilt. The author suggests it was named after rossignols [nightingales]. Girart, in sum, has almost as much land as Charles. They marry Bertha and Eloise, the daughters of Count Hugons of Sens. When he dies, his sons-in-law quarrel over his inheritance, despite Bertha’s pleading for peace. Charles lays siege to Roussillon, whereupon the rest of Girart’s fiefs surrender without a fight. Bertha advises Girart to surrender. Girart sends Fouque to Charles, as in the decasyllabic poem. Fouque is about to attack Charles, but courtiers restrain him. Girart is defeated and driven from Roussillon to Poligny, where he is defeated again, and flees with Bertha. They intend to go to King Oton of Hungary, but instead are obliged to live in the woods where Girart works as a charcoal burner. Eventually, the reconciliation takes place as in the Vita. Girart and Betha do good works, but at last Girart asks Charles for Bertha’s fiefs back, whereupon Charles declares war. Girart thinks he’s bluffing, and takes possession of the disputed land, whereupon Charles attacks him. Girart defeats Charles in Flanders and at Soissons, then comes the battle of Valbeton, in Pierre-Pertuise. In the battle, Drogon is killed. After the battle, a truce is made, but no lasting peace. Charles returns home, and Girart and Bertha build monasteries. They bring Saint Eusebius to Pothièrs, and Saint Pontien to Vézelay. Saint Badilon, a bishop, brings the body of St. Mary Magdalene from Aix in Provence to Vézelay. Charles resumes the war and lays siege to Roussillon. Girart’s chamberlain betrays him and opens the gates. Girart manages to retake the castle, but Charles sets fire to it as he retreats, and it is ruined. Girart flees and builds a new castle, Chatillon. Charles lays siege to this one, too. Girart sends Bertha to Provence, and himself retreats to Montargis. He and Charles battle at Sixte, near Pont-sur-Yonne. Girart is victorious, and chases the king all the way to Paris, which he besieges. But God sends an angel to make peace. Girart and Bertha return home to live piously and work miracles and Vézelay and Pothièrs. Bertha and Girart die and his vassals fight over his body, all as in the Vita. Miracles occur at their tombs. The lame are healed, a vandal is blinded, and Bertha appears in glory to the sacristan. A hermit sees seats in Heaven prepared for their souls, as in the Vita.

WAUQUELIN’S GIRART

Is a mere mise en prose of the Alexandrines, with a few details of Burgundian local color.

DAVID AUBERT’S HISTORY OF CHARLES MARTEL

Is based on Wauquelin, but he restores Bertha and Eloyse to their place as princesses of Hungary. According to Aubert, Charles the Hammer was the son of Eustache of Berry, who was son of Duke Gloriant of Berry. Charles married the fair Marcebille, daughter of King Theodorus of France, much against that monarch’s will. He then fell in with Duke Girart of Roussillon, and they became fast friends. They went to Constantinople, where they served the Emperor and had many adventures, before returning home, the one to become King of France, the other to become Duke of Bourgogne. The story then continues as in Wauquelin, only much abridged.

JEAN DE MANSEL

I can find little information on him, but what I have indicates that he did little of interest. He slightly abridged Wauquelin, and the chapbooks that followed him and were based on him presumably did the same, with each new edition being even more corrupt than the one before it.

The Legend of Charles Martel

The popular muse appears to have combined Charles the Hammer with his grandson Charles the Great. The Hammer has very few romances in which he even features and only one, to my knowledge, in which he is the protagonist. Though Pippin the Short is usually remembered as the father of Charlemagne, Pippin’s father is often forgotten, or replaced with such people as King Rother or Agnolo Michele. Even his great victory over the Muslim hordes at Tours left no trace in the oral tradition, although perhaps it lies beneath some of his grandson’s legendary victories.

There is, however, one romance in which the Hammer has a starring role: David Aubert’s Histoire de Charles Martel. Or at least, he stars in the first part. The bulk of the romance is devoted to the adventures of Girart of Roussillon, Orson of Beauvais, and the Lorrainers. The first part, however, features Charles as the protagonist. Some scholars think it is based on a lost chanson de geste. Be that as it may, the story is clearly very late, and is a typical late Carolingian cliché-fest. As David Aubert has never been printed, the following summary is based on the chapter titles as given in Paul Meyer’s introduction to Girart of Roussillon.

DAVID AUBERT’S LEGEND OF CHARLES MARTEL

Duke Gloriant of Berry lays siege to the city of Lusarne in Spain, which belongs to the Saracens. His eldest son, Huitasse [Eustace] de Berry captures Princess Ydorie of Lusarne from her guardian giant Orrible, and marries her. The Admiral [emir] is furious, takes Gloriant captive, and chases Huitasse away. He returns home to Bourges, whence his brother manages to expel him. As if this were not bad enough, King Theodorus of France [Theuderic IV] learns from his astrologers that the son of Huitasse, named Charles Martel, will be king after him, and plots to kill the lad. Fortunately, Gloriant escapes prison and returns home, where he manages to reconcile his sons. Little Charles is raised by Raimbaut the Marshall and his wife Hermentine, in Paris. He grows of an age to prove himself, and is a wonder. He participates in jousts at Paris, and wins the prize thereof and the love of King Theodorus’ daughter Marsibelle. The two are wed in Avignon. King Theodorus is furious, and imprisons the abbot of Saint-Denis and Count Galleran of Provence for allowing the wedding. He then sends Galleran to arrest his daughter and new son-in-law. Charles is gone, however. He has met Girart of Roussillon and they are adventuring together, en route to Constantinople, where they leave Marsibelle while they adventure. A long war ensues, involving King Agoulant of Jerusalem, king Menelaus of Dammarie, Emperor Belinas of Constantinople, a civil war in France between King Theodorus and Charles’ father Duke Huitasse of Berry, various minor knights and nobles, captivities, rescues, escapes, and all the usual paraphernalia, except, apparently, magic, which does not seem to feature until later in the romance. In the course of these wars, Charles impregnates Menelaus’ daughter Sagramoire. Fortunately for her, she soon marries Agoulant (who has killed Menelaus), and is able to pass off her son Archefer as Agoulant’s. Not till he is grown does she reveal the secret. Meanwhile, peace has been made in France, and King Theodorus has died, leaving the realm to his son Ydrich [Childerich III]. Archefer sees this as a sign that France is weak, and invades with a Saracen army. Charles conquers and converts him. The barons of France all agree to depose the incompetent Ydrich and make Charles king of France. After his coronation, Charles goes overseas with Archefer to convert Sagramoire. Unfortunately, they get caught up in another round of wars. Marsebille leads an army from France to Outremer, but Archefer and Sagramoire kill her. Charles captures his son, and sends him on a quest to Hell, from which, after many adventures, he returns alive, thanks to the enchanters Carniquant, whom he learned from, and Sorbrin, whom he killed and whose book he stole. Archefer presents his father with a great black horse, a gift from Lucifer himself.

Girart of Roussillon now travels to the Holy Sepulchre, and on his way home becomes engaged to Alexandrine, daughter of King Othon of Hungary.

Meanwhile, Duke Hillaire of Aquitaine, brother of Theodorus, wishes to be king of France, now that Ydrich has died. He invades, and very nearly succeeds in driving out Charles Martel, who is, however, saved by Girart. After Hillaire surrenders, Charles and Girart plan to marry the two daughters of King Othon, and the story segues into Girart of Roussillon, in a version which follows that of Wauquelin very closely.

ORIGINS OF THE LEGEND

In actual history, Charles Martel was the bastard son of Pepin II, Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of France. Charles was imprisoned by Pepin’s justly irritated wife Plectruda. When Pepin died in 715, Plectruda became the regent for her six-year-old grandson Theodebald. Charles, aged twenty-five, escaped from prison, a civil war broke out, the Saxons invaded, and King Dagobert III died, probably from assassination (715). The Franks opposed to Charles chose Chilperic II as their king, the son of Childeric I. Charles, while skirmishing with northern invaders, set up his own king: Clotair IV, whose exact relation to the Merovingians is unclear. Chilperic fled to Aquitaine, where Duke Eudes supported him – until Charles threatened to invade. Luckily for everyone, Clotair died, and Charles accepted Chilperic as king. Chilperic II died in 720, and the Franks elected Theuderic IV as king, the son of Dagobert III. The Moors crossed the Pyrenees that same year, and occupied the southern coast of France. Eudes recovered Toulouse in 721, but could not save Narbonne, and after several devastating raids thought it prudent to give his daughter Lampegia to the Muslim governor of Catalonia. Theuderic IV died in 727, and Charles never bothered replacing him. In 732, Abdelrahman, the Emir of Spain, attempted to conquer all of France, drove Eudes out of Aquitaine, but was defeated and slain by Eudes and Charles at the Battle of Tours [Poitiers]. In 735, Eudes died. Charles attempted to seize his territory, but was eventually obliged to leave Eudes’ son Hunauld in possession, though as his vassal. Charles next attempted conquering southwestern France, but failed to accomplish anything of value besides reclaiming Avignon for the Christians. Indeed, he often  seemed more interested in fighting Christians then the Saracens, and burned the Christian cities of Nîmes, Agde, and Beziers on his way back to the north to fight the Saxons. In 739, however he was recalled to the south by King Liutprand of Lombardy, in concert with whom he drove the Saracens (slightly) back to the west. Charles died in 741, and was succeeded as Mayor by his sons Carloman and Pepin III the Short. Faced with rebellions on every hand, including from their bastard brother Grifon, the joint Mayors raised Childeric III to the throne in 743, to help restore order. No one knows how Childeric was related to the Merovingian line, if he even really was. The rebellions were put down, Carloman retired to a monastery in 747, and Pepin, by permission of Pope Zacharias, sent Childeric to a monastery in 751 and crowned himself King. In 754 Pope Stephen II travelled to Paris to consecrate Pepin and his sons Carloman and Charles as patrici Romanorum, and forbade the people of France, under pain of excommunication, to ever take a king who was not of their family

As can be seen, there is only the vaguest resemblance between actual history and David Aubert’s romance.

The Legend of Renaud of Montauban 11: Italian Variants and Origins

CRITICISM

This poem’s vast popularity, which resulted in Rinaldo becomming the most famous knight of Charlemagne’s among the Italian people, is due, I think, to two related factors. The first is that the poem is, as far as a foreigner can judge, well-written. It moves along with scarcely a dull moment from beginning to end. The second is, that it is unabashedly on the side of the House of Clairmont. Gone are the moral dilemmas of the French poem, the conflicts between loyalty to country and loyalty to family, the question of whether it is right to obey one’s king when he is clearly in the wrong. The poem sometimes even crosses the border into protagonist-centered morality, as when Namo and Ogier have no qualms about sacrificing thousands of Christians in the vain hope of reconciling Charles and Rinaldo, or when Malagigi arranges the betrayal and slaughter of the Maganzans. Anything the House of Clairmont does is fair play, but anything the Maganzans do is foul treason. One can clearly see the difference between a poem written for the nobility of France serving kings of highly varying competence, and a poem written for the lower and middle classes of an Italy which had only recently advanced from deadly feuds within her cities to deadly feuds between her cities.

ORIGINS

The poet relates the traditional episodes rather briefly, to make more room for his own inventions.

In much the same way as the Old French, where the traditional heart of the poem (the treason at Vaucoleurs and its aftermath) is the same across all MSS, whereas the later additions (Montessor and Tremoigne) were freely rewritten, so in the Italian the (by-then) traditional portions representing the Old French chanson are similar in all four of the oldest copies, while the new additions such as Rinaldo’s giant-killing spree are freely altered.

Two messengers are sent to Buovo d’Agrismonte, as in O. Afterwards, however, the account of the quarrel at chess and the rest of the story follow DPA.

Combats between fathers and sons are well-known in folklore. Odysseus is slain by his son. Cuchulain slays his. Rustan slays his. Arthur and Mordred slay each other. Hildebrand and his son recognize each other before either is slain. Amadis of Gaul was slain by Esplendian in the [lost] original book, but in Montalvo’s reworking they recognize each other in time.

The siege of Monte Soro is much abridged, but what it does keep follows the French closely, such as the slaying of one Ugo de Sant’ Omeri by Guicciardo.

Mambrino is simply a replacement for Begon. His brothers appear to be Italian inventions.

The siege of Monte Albano is much condensed from the French, and appears to take place over a few months, rather than years and years.

The corpse stops in Ceoigne, as in POA, the French prose, and Caxton.

VARIANTS

In a: immediately after the slaying of the giant Constantino, the next adventure is that of the Amostante of Persia, wherein Rinaldo visits the Sultan before offering his services to the Almostante.

The Marte episode is also narrated differently. The four cousins have their own adventures while crossing the sea. When they finally arrive, Rinaldo and Ulivieri fight in a judicial duel for Queen Sibilia. At the feast after they win, the spies of Gano expose the identity of the four newcomers, and a battle breaks out. The eight Paladins are driven back to the Royal Palace, where the Queen confides to them the secret of her love, and shows them a secret exit. They are nonetheless pursued, Rinaldo cuts off Marte’s head, but Astolfo is captured. Rinaldo sends Baiard away, and the battle proceeds as usual. Only after this battle do the Four Sons visit the Holy Sepulcher, and when they return to France Orlando specifically reconciles them with Charles.

In the beta family: Two cantos are interpolated at the beginning of the poem. The first expands on the backstory between Amone and Ginamo, and the second is merely a description of the Paladins gathering at Charles’ court.

Later on, it is Ginamo’s brother Folco who meets the Sons and is slain by them. Rinaldo kills Ginamo in a judicial duel in Paris.

The Amostante’s daughter is named Constanza, not Fioretta.

The story of Fierabras is interpolated between the end of the war against Mambrino and the attempted pilgrimage of Ganelon to Compostella.

Rinaldo’s corpse, very sensibly, does not travel to Cogna but instead into Saint Peter’s Church in Cologne. A scroll proceeds from his mouth, on which his name and history are written. The news is taken to Charles, who comes with the Paladins to pay their respects. The lamentations of Aymonetto, Ivonetto, his brothers, Orlando, Astofo, etc. are related. Even Ganelon is given a stanza of (undoubtably hypocritical) mourning, regretful for all the times they quarrelled. Charles hangs the masons, and endows an abbey of monks.

The poem appears to end, but in some beta editions is added, without explanation, a whole furter canto of adventures. (In other copies, this episode is more logically placed just before Rinaldo’s departue for Cologne) Ganelon tells Charles he really ought to hang that thief Rinaldo. Charles concurs, but asks how. Ganelon suggests inviting Rinaldo to court, and then hanging him. Charles agrees, and writes a letter, which he sends via Turpin. Rinaldo arrives at court, and after a feast, retires to his chamber in a tower. Ganelon, Charles, and a hundred goons come in the middle of the night to arrest him, having first distracted the Peers on some pretext or other. Rinaldo is imprisoned and sentenced to be hanged, much to the Peers’ grief. Malagise, on hearing the news, summons a demon, Macabello. The two disguise themselves as friars and fly to Paris, where they request to hear Rinaldo’s shrift. Charles lets them into the prison, where Macabello assumes the shape of Rinaldo and stays behind while Rinaldo dons friar’s garb and leaves with his cousin. The two of them go back to Charles and announce that Rinaldo is impenitent, and ought to be hanged at once. As the friars leave, Charles sends the Maganzans to bring Rinaldo out for execution – but he is gone! Charles rants and raves, and accuses Alda the Fair (here Orlando’s wife, not betrothed) of helping him escape. She knows nothing, but a fight has broken out in the palace between the Maganzans and everyone else, and the traitors die by the score. Some confusing trips of Rinaldo back and forth to Paris and Montalbano follow, in which he fights Maganzans and makes speeches to Charles. Ganelon, alas, survives, but after the treason of Roncesvalles he will be quartered by wild horses.

There were, of course, many other corruptions in the later printed editions, sometimes extending to whole cantos being omitted or shuffled around. The curious may find them all duly catalogued in Melli’s edition.

The Legend of Renaud of Montauban 10: Italian

The Italian family consists of the following versions:

I Cantari di Rinaldo da Montealbano. In ottava rima, from the late 1300’s. Crticial edition by Elio Melli in 1973 under the title I Cantari di Rinaldo da Monte Albano.

El Inamoramento de Rinaldo da Monte Albano. The aforesaid Cantari, with the story of Fierabras interpolated, a prologue dealing with the feud of Aymon and Ginamo of Baiona added, and many episodes lengthened. Also printed under the title of Rinaldo Innamorato, and in either case usually with a very long subtitle.

Prose Rinaldo. Probably by Andrea da Barberino, though this cannot be proved.

Rinaldo, by Torquato Tasso. In ottava rima. Translated into English couplets by John Hoole, whom Scott notoriously described as “a noble transmuter of gold into lead.” More recently translated into ottava rima by Max Wickert.

I CANTARI DI RINALDO DA MONTE ALBANO

The oldest and best version is in a MS known as palatino 364, of the Bib. Naz. di Firenze. There are three other versions, each of which expand the first section (up to the chessboard-murder) in their own unique ways. R: a manuscript fragment which ends just before the ambush of Buovo, Cod. Riccardiano 683. a: a printed edition without title or date, probably from 1479, British Museum, Printed Books G 11352. b: the first (surviving) printing of El Inamoramento de Rinaldo da Monte Albano, from which all other printings are descended. After the chessboard-murder these three versions all follow Pal closely, with the exception of b’s interpolation of Fierabras before the beginning of the war against Monte Albano. Since b is the ancestor of all other versions, they are known as the beta family. is most likely related to the prose version in the Laurenzian library.

 PALATINO 364

Charlemagne holds court at Paris, when Ginamo of Baiona tells Amone that he [Ginamo] has cuckolded him [Amone], and that all four of his [Amone’s] sons are actually Ginamo’s. Amone, furious, heads for Dordona, but Orlando, Astolfo, Ulivieri, and Namo send messengers ahead of him to warn the Duchess, who flees with her sons Alardo, Rinaldo, Guicciardo and Ricciardetto to Monte Ermino [Montherme]. Rinaldo swears to clear his mother’s name.

Amone is son of Bernardo of Chiaramonte, and his brothers are Girado of Ronsiglione, Milon d’Angrante [Orlando’s father], King Otto of England, [Astolfo’s father], Duodo of Antonia [Doon de Nanteuil?] and Buovo of Agrismonte. Buovo and his wife Smeragda were long childless, and so went on pilgrimage to Saint James. Smeragda became pregnant, and gave birth to twin boys. However, they were still in Spain at the time, and their train was attacked by King Avilante. Only Buovo and his wife escaped, and their children were left behind in the rout. King Avilante finds the one, adopts him and names him Viviano. The other is found by the Queen of Belfiore, who happens to be passing by some days later. She finds him “mal giacere” [lying ill: that is, alone], names him Malagigi, and teaches him magic. By his magic, he grows up to win Baiardo, whom he finds in a grotto with a hauberk, a helmet, and the sword Frusberta. He slays the deadly serpent that guards them, and claims them. Since, by his magic, he knows who his family are and the peril they are in, he takes leave of his foster-mother and pretends to be a merchant. He sells his cousins Baiardo, saying that no bastard can sit on this wonderful horse. Rinaldo, reassured by his mother, buys the beast, after which Malagigi reveals his identity and departs. The brethren ride to Paris with their train. Ginamo meets them on the way and claims to be their father, but they defy him, and battle is joined. The brethren slay Ginamo, who is carried to his castle, where his sons Ramondo and Beltramo mourn him. Although the Sons are reconciled with their father, Charles banishes them from Christendom for three years for killing Ginamo. As they leave, Gano secretly follows to ambush them. Luckily, Orlando is suspicious, and rides with his other cousins after them, finding them just after Gano’s men have leapt out of the bushes. Gano has concealed his insignia, but Rinaldo gives him an ugly cut through his helmet. Gano flees when Orlando arrives, still unknown. The Duchess returns to Dordona with Amone, and Rinaldo takes up residence in Monte Ermino, deciding to lay low instead of actually leaving. Gano returns to court, where he pretends he had a hunting accident. Orlando is suspicious, but can prove nothing.

Continue reading

The Legend of Mabrien

The Bibliotheque Universelle des Romans mentions a MS of Mabrien in verse, but no trace of such a romance has been found. The surviving versions of the legend of Mabrien, grandson of Renaud of Montauban, are as follows:

The prose versions, in MSS. Am and Lf of the Grand Prose of Renaud of Montauban.

The printed versions, starting in 1525, under a variety of titles, but usually changing the spelling to Mabrian. Adapted from the MSS by Guy Bounay and Jehan le Cueur.

THE MANUSCRIPT VERSION

Renaud’s son Yon is now king of Jerusalem, and is married to Queen Aiglentine, daughter of Robastre (once King of Jerusalem, before Renaud killed him), and brother of Baptamur (called Durandal before his baptism). Yon’s brother Aymon is king of Angorie and is married to Sinamonde, daughter of Danemont who was previously killed by Renaud. Yon and Aiglentine have a son. Six fairies, four queens and two kings, come to his cradle that night. The Queens are Morgan le Fay, Gloriande, Ydain the Fair, and Gracienne. The kings are Arthur and Gloriant. Arthur gives him the gift to be a great conqueror and the strongest knight since the days of Priam, and to visit them in Fairyland. Morgan gives him the gifts of wisdom and honesty. Gloriande grants him to be loved by all women and to be the strongest of men. Gracienne grants him to never be overcome in battle. Soon afterward, the boy is baptized Doon. He is kidnapped, however, and sold to the pagan Queen Mabrienne, daughter of King Fortin and wife of the Amiral Barré. Her husband is at war, so she passes the child off as her own and calls him Mabrien. Yon’s vassal Gerard de Blaives is regent of Jerusalem, but loses the city to Barré. That Amiral installs Acaire as king, much to the anger of his ally, King Murgalas, who thereupon becomes his enemy. Gerard, Yon, and Aiglentine escape to Acre. By the advice of Baptamur, they retake Jerusalem and kill Acaire.

Meanwhile, King Murgalas has laid siege to Admiral Barré in his city of Ordanne. The newly-dubbed Mabrien defeats him and takes his magical armor. Admiral Barré, excited by his son’s abilities, decides to besiege the Sultan of Babylon [not named. Babylon seems to be Old Babylon, and not Cairo]. Mabrien conquers him, too, and his “father” becomes the new Sultan. They next conquer Angorie, and King Aymonnet flees to his brother in Jerusalem. Mabrien next lays siege to Jerusalem, and the two kings send to Charlemagne for help. Charlemagne (for once) comes to help the Aymonids, bringing Roland and Oliver with him. Mabrien repels them all, however, kills his uncle Aymonnet, and takes Jerusalem, chasing the Christians to Acre (again). Charlemagne and the Peers retreat to France, and all seems lost. Fortunately for Christendom, Mabrienne falls in love with her adopted son. Even though she reveals his true identity, he still repulses her, so she sends him to the Sultan of Mecca with a Bellerophon-letter. He is accompanied, as usual, by Fortin and Sarragot. The three are imprisoned by the Sultan. Luckily, this Sultan has a daughter, Gloriande, who is smitten with the handsome prisoners and escapes with them.

The author at this point assures us that, unlike the histories of Arthur, Lancelot du Lac, Perceval, Tristan, Huon of Bourdeaux, and others, his story is true. The foursome sail away, but are forced by a storm to land in Ludie [Lydia?], ruled by the Sultan of Mecca’s vassal, King Vast. So many of King Vast’s vassals attack them that Fortin, Sarragot, and Gloriande are captured and Mabrien is forced to retreat to sea in the boat. He is shipwrecked on the Island of Adamant, the same where Huon of Bordeaux landed. This island is magnetic, and thus irresistably attracts all ships that come near. It is also home to the Becqus, a race of humanoid monsters that swim like fishes, have heads like birds’, and eat sailors who are shipwrecked on the island. Mabrien repels them, and constructs from the flotsam and jetsam a ship made entirely of wood. He sails away, reaches the mainland, and wanders until he finds a tree planted by King Arthur which marks the border of Fairyland. The fairy Gracienne (the same who came to his cradle) has hung a shield thereon which is only for the best knight in the world. Mabrien takes it and journeys on, until he meets Sir Eubrom, a knight of Arthur’s. Arthur reigns over Fairyland with his sister Morgan, and they wish to test Mabrien. Mabrien overcomes the Red Knight, the White Knight, the Black Knight, the Green Knight, the Rainbow Knight, the Blue Knight, and ten others [they are not named] to win admission to Arthur’s castle. At this juncture, a damsel-errant comes, seeking a champion for her lady, the the fairy Gracienne. Mabrien goes to succor her, and defeats a lion, a serpent, a dragon, and a luiton named Gaudice. He thereby wins the fairy’s favors, and begets on her a bastard named Gracien. Travelling with her, his infant son, and his new servant/friend Gaudice, he comes to the Abbey Adventurous, where he overcomes the knights who attack any traveller who blows the horn. He next comes to the Terreastiral Paradise, where Enoch and Elijah show him the famous Trees, and then to the sea, where Cain is floating in a nail-studded barrel. Farther on is the land of Prester John, whose people are all fed by the fruits from the Tree of Life. Mabrien receives one of these fruits to take home with him.

Meanwhile, King Vast plans to kill Fortin and Saragot because Gloriande refuses to marry him. Luckily, Mabrien returns and kills him, conquers his city, and converts his people to Christianity. He now journeys eastward with his companions, and kills the fifteen giants who guard the passage to India with their fifteen castles. They have such names as Ardouffle, Gallafre, Bruyant, Danebus, and the like. (Not all are named). Gallafre wisely surrenders, and becomes Mabrien’s servant. Our hero now returns to France, leaving Gallafre to guard his lady Gloriande in the castle of Macedonia [not the real Macedonia]. In France, he introduces himself by dueling Ogier, and is met with rejoicing. Charlemagne is desperate for good knights, since this is shortly after Roncesvalles, and Roland, Oliver, Avin, Avoire, Engelier of Gascony, and twenty thousand knights are dead. Mabrien gives Charlemagne the Fruit of Life to eat, and the ancient emperor again becomes a sprightly young bachelor. Charlemagne kindly tells Mabrien that his parents are alive and well, and living in Tremoigne. Mabrien again introduces himself by dueling, and fights his father to a draw before revealing himself. They all return to Paris, Mabrien having summoned his wife and friends from Macedonia, amidst much rejoicing. Mabrien and Gloriande are baptized [the author seems to have forgotten Mabrien was baptized already] and wed by the Bishop of Paris [Turpin does not appear in this romance].

Mabrien now leads the French overseas, conquering Acre, Jerusalem, and Angorie. The French return home. Mabrien and his friends are shipwrecked again. King Solimant of Nadres imprisons Gloriande, Sarragot, and Fortin. Mabrien lays siege to Nadres, conquers it, and converts Solimant and his people. He arranges for Solimant’s sister Rose to marry the King of Persia, and then sails away. Passing the homeland of Job, the land of the Amazons, Ethiopia, and India, he finds the city of Rocq, in the port of Siet, and converts its king Sanguin by defeating the king in a duel. He next travels to Marrocq, where he kills King Polus and takes possession of the land. At this juncture, his wife Gloriane gives birth to a son, named Regnault, or Regnauldin. Now Mabrian wars on King Bruyant of Cana. He kills King Agoulafre of Hault Assis, rescues King Sanguin from invading infidels, but is imprisoned by Bruyant. At this juncture, however, Gracien, now grown to manhood, arrives, rescues his father, and kills Bruyant. Mabrien proceeds to kill King Tenebre of Simoubar and convert his kingdom, whereupon the [Christian] Great Khan sends him a beautifully wrought golden apple in tribute.

Mabrien is now beginning to tire of war, and so he crowns Regnauldin king and weds him to Eglantine, the daughter of Bruyant. He then retires to a hermitage. Twenty years later, King Barufle of Morinde makes war on Regnauldin, and Mabrien leaves his hermitage to help his son. He slays Barufle’s brother Escorfault, and is mortally wounded by Barufle in turn. Regnauldin kills Barufle, but Mabrien dies. Gracien and Regnauldin bury their father in a rich sepulchre in Cana, where he is venerated as a martyr. Regnauldin’s son Aymon, many years later, conquers the Morindians.

THE PRINTED VERSIONS

Guy and Jehan alternate between abridging the MS and showing off how many Latin synonyms they know. In their prologue, they plump for Renaud’s sons fighting the sons of Foulques of Morillon, and place the Conquest of Trebisond immediately after said duel. The printed version begins by summarizing the last adventures of Renaud, and proceeds to relate, at some length, the Death of Maugis, as we have given before.

ORIGINS

Very, very much an example of the late school of romances of chivalry. The wars are simply one thing after another, the love affairs and intrigues are mostly perfunctory, and the least uninteresting parts, the adventures with the Fairies, are mostly stolen from Ogier the Dane. For the curious, Jerusalem changes hands four times in this story. What more is there to say? A bad fanfic continuation is a bad fanfic continuation, no matter what century it was written in, and we may at least be grateful that no one ever wrote the adventures of Aymon III.

The Legend of Renaud 9: Saint Reinolt of Cologne

The legend of the martyrdom of Renaud of Montauban, or Rinaldo, is found in two stand-alone versions, besides those at the end of the Quatre Fils Aymon.

For editions of the Quatre Fils, see my other posts. A complete synoptic version of the martyrdom exists as a thesis at the University of Ghent but will likely never be printed. Support copyright reform!

Vita Sancti Reinoldis Monachis et Martyris, a Latin saint’s life, printed by the Bollandists in the Acta Sanctorum, January Volume 1, pages 385-387.

Vita Sancti Reinoldi Rythmice. A Latin saint’s life in verse, printed by Joseph Floss in Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein, inbesondere das alte Erzdiöcese Köln, Volume 30, 1876, pages 185-203. Clearly from the Dutch, as evidenced by the names of the brethern, their mother’s being the sister of Charles, Clarice being Yon’s daughter, and Renaud’s slaying of three sultans in the Holy Land.

La Quatre Fils Aymon – Original

According to the Quatre Fils, the penitent Renaud, after seeing his two sons established in their patrimony, wanders for a time in the forest, occasionally staying at a monastery, until he comes to Cologne, where he offers his services to the masons who are building the Church of Saint Peter. Renaud lifts a stone which four other men cannot carry, does more work than ten other men can do, and only accepts enough wages as will buy him bread to eat and straw to sleep on. This goes on for some time, until the other masons, growing jealous, kill him and throw his body into the Rhine. But all the fish of the river hold the body up, and at nightfall torches appear around it and angels begin to sing. The murderers confess and are pardoned, and the archbishop goes to fetch the body, brings it into the church, and sings Mass over it. After the Mass, Renaud’s body is miraculously carried out of the church, and into a cart, which travels of its own accord from Cologne to Tremoigne, where all the sick who seek him are made whole. According to DN and the Dutch, the corpse went straight from Cologne to Tremoigne. According to LC, it stopped in Ceoigne for the night before proceeding to Tremoigne. According to POA and the French prose, it stopped at Ceoigne and went no farther.

In DN, the masons drop a stone from a scaffold onto Renaud’s head as he humbly eats his poor bread. In all other versions, French, Dutch and Latin, they kill him with their hammers or pickaxes. Castets, who thought L was the oldest version, suspected that the variance was due to a confusion between martel meaning hammer and marteau meaning stone block. Perhaps he is right, or perhaps, since D is actually the oldest, he had the matter backwards, and Hunaud I who was killed lapidibus [by stones] became Renaud who was killed, lapicidus [by stonemasons], with a hammer.

The Prose Life of Saint Reinold

The prose Vita Sancti Reinoldi, monachi et martyris completely ignores its hero’s military career. It makes briefly alludes to his wars against Charlemagne, but never makes mention of his horse Baiard, or of his cousin Maugis the enchanter or of his sons Aymonet and Yonnet. It alludes to the fame of the four brothers [whom it does not name] being celebrated in the songs of the people, but that is all. By contrast, the Vita recounts several miracles of Reinold which are not to be found in the Quatre Fils. The writer claims Reinold, after a knightly career, joined a monastery [which one is not specified] in Cologne. While he was still a monk, God answered his prayers by curing a man who had been born blind, and a boy who was sick with a dangerous fever. After these things, by devout prayer he obtained from God the end of a pestilence that was ravaging the country. His fame spread, and songs were sung about him. At his abbot’s orders, he was put in charge of the stonemasons. He continued to visit churches and to devoutly give alms, besides working harder than any of the men under his command. The other masons, excited by jealousy, broke his skull with a hammer, and threw him into the Rhine. Angels bore his soul to heaven. The abbot, searching for the body, could not find it. However, an old and infirm woman had a dream in which she was told to go the river, where blessed Reinold is buried. Upon awakening, she did so and was healed. The monks took his body to the Church and honored him as a saint. Sometime later, the cities of Tremoigne and Clerum [apparently Ceoigne] both wished to have some of the relics of Reinold, and the Archbishop was unsure which to give them to. The Lord indicated Tremoigne [how we are not told], and Reinold’s body was carried thither, without a miracle, but accompanied by three thousand rejoicing citizens. He was laid to rest there on the seventh of January. God continues to work miracles there. The blind have been cured, lepers cleansed and paralytics restored.

There are no dates given whatsoever. The suggestion of the Bollandists that the Archbishop who oversaw the translation of the relics was St. Anno II (r. 1056-1075) is no more than a guess.

The Verse Life of Saint Reinold

The verse Vita Sancti Reynoldi is accompanied in the manuscript by a prose commentary which mostly repeats the same story but sometimes adds new details. The poem tells how Adelhardus, Ritzardus, Reynoldus, and Writardus were Frenchmen, born at Dorduna to Heymon and Aya, daughter of Pipin and sister of King Charles. The four were mighty men of war. Reynoldus was a Catholic man and a great warrior who was filled with virtue and the fear of God and wished to renounce the world. He called his sons and divided his property among them and his wife Claritia, (who is here the daughter, not the sister, of King Ivonis of Tarascon). He leaves the castle of Montalban to his son Emericus, and departs for the wilderness. His father, mother and brothers pursue him but cannot find him. For three years he serves God in the wilderness, until he hears a voice from God telling him to go fight the infidels in Jerusalem. He does so, slaying three Sultans with only a staff. He then returns home, briefly visits Charlemagne’s court, and then goes to Cologne, where Agilolphus (r. 713-717) is bishop. (A medieval note in the manuscript suggests Riolphus (r. 768-782) as the proper reading). Reynoldus lives such a holy life that he cures the blind, dumb, and possessed. The “magister claustri” [abbot] appoints him to oversee the stonemasons. He works harder than any of them, which arouses their envy, and so they kill him. This is the fourteenth of May, the year 800, according to the prose gloss. Reynoldus, now enjoying the beatific vision, appears to a paralytic woman and heals her, and some time afterward an angel shows where his body is lying, and on the third of September it is drawn out of the river and put on display in a church in Cologne, where God cures many more people through it. The people of Tremoigne wish to have the body, and their request is granted. The body is laid in a cart, which moves of its own accord to Tremoigne. The people of Tremoigne build a church for him, whither Charlemagne comes to mourn his nephew.

OTHER VERSIONS

Outside of the chanson, the oldest explicit reference to Renaud of Montauban as a saint is to be found in the work of Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, writing around the year 1232. According to Alberic, Renaldus, Alardus, Richardus, and Guichardus were the four sons of Haymo [Aymon] and of a sister of Charlemagne’s. Saint Renaldus was the oldest of the four, became a monk in the abbey of Saint Pantaleon at Cologne, was there martyred [how is not specified], and is now buried in Tremoigne. Alberic relates their history as a brief aside during a list of Charlemagne’s warriors who accompanied him into Spain in the year 805. He never mentions it elsewhere, so it is unclear what year he thought the martyrdom occurred.

In a ninth century missal from the Cathedral of Cologne, someone has written in tenth century handwriting the names “reginoldi” and “reginoldo” on the margins of the Collect and Postcommunion of the Mass of a martyr. Unfortunately, nothing is known about this saint. The names are all that were thus written, and the prayers themselves are the generic ones from the common of martyrs, and therefore shed no light on how this Reginoldus died. However, he is almost certainly the same saint still venerated today. Paul Fiebig, whose St. Reinoldus in Kult, Liturgie und Kunst is still the definitive book on the cult of St. Reinolt, lists all the other saints he could find named Renaud or something similar, but none of them was a martyr or lived in the 900’s or earlier.

The Legend of Renaud of Montauban 8: German, More Dutch, and Latin Verse

The Quatre Fils Aymon gave rise to a Dutch poem, which begot a multitude of descendents of its own, as follows.

Renout van Montalbaen, in Dutch verse. 1200’s. Only fragments survive. Editions:

Renout van Montalbaen, met inleidning en aanteekeningen door Dr. J. C. Matthes, Groningen, Wolters (Bibliotheek van middelnederlandsche letterkunde, 15), 1875. This one has six of the fragments.

Roethe, G., “Günser Bruchstück des mnl. Renout von Montalbaen”Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Litteratur, 48, 1906. This one has a seventh fragment.

Vita Sancti Reinoldi Rythmice. A Latin saint’s life in verse, printed by Joseph Floss in Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein, inbesondere das alte Erzdiöcese Köln, Volume 30, 1876, pages 185-203. Clearly from the Dutch, as evidenced by the names of the brethern, their mother being the sister of Charles, Clarice being Yon’s daughter, and Renaud’s slaying of three sultans in the Holy Land.

De Historie van den vier Heemskindern. Dutch prose adaptation, 1508. This is the ancestor of the Dutch and German chapbooks. Edition: De Historie van den vier Heemskindern editor G. S. Overdiep, 1931, available for free online from the Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren.

In 1619 a censored edition, expunging passages considered contrary to morals and the Catholic Faith, received the imprimatur and became the standard version in the Catholic Low Countries. The Protestants continued to print the old version. The censored version was used in Dutch schools well into the twentieth century, and thus escaped the corruptions of the popular French versions.

Die vier Heymons Kinder. German prose adaptiation of 1604. The standard German edition and ancestor of the German chapbooks.

Reinolt von Montelban oder die Heimonskinder. Middle High German verse, 1450. Two manuscripts survive, complete. Edition: Reinolt von Montelban oder die Heimonskinder, edited by Fridrich Pfaff, 1885, Volume 174 of the Bibliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart.

Histôrie van Sent Reinolt. Short prose adaptation of the Dutch poem and other sources into Colgone-dialect German, c. 1450. Edited by Al. Reiffersheid. Zeitschrift für deutsches Philologie. Volume 5, 1874, pp. 271-293.

LATIN VERSE VITA

Adelhardus, Ritzardus, Reynoldus, and Writardus were Frenchmen, born at Dorduna to Heymon and Aya, daughter of Pipin and sister of King Charles. The four were mighty men of war. Reynoldus was a Catholic man and a great warrior who was filled with virtue and the fear of God and wished to renounce the world. He called his sons and divided his property among them and his wife Claritia, daughter of King Ivonis of Tarascon. He leaves the castle of Montalban to his son Emericus and departs for the wilderness. His father, mother and brothers pursue but cannot find him. For three years he serves God in the wilderness until he hears a voice from God telling him to go fight the infidels in Jerusalem. He does so, slaying three Sultans with only a staff. He then returns home, briefly visits Charlemagne’s court [we are not told why], and then goes to Cologne, where Agilolphus (r. 713-717) is bishop. (A medieval note in the manuscript suggests that Riolphus (r. 768-782) is the proper reading). Reynoldus lives such a holy life that he cures the blind, dumb, and possessed. The “magister claustri” [abbot] appoints him to oversee the stonemasons. He works harder than any of them, which arouses their envy, and so they kill him. This is the fourteenth of May, the year 800, according to the prose gloss. Reynoldus, now enjoying the beatific vision, appears to a paralytic woman and heals her. Some time afterward an angel shows where his body is lying, and on the third of September it is drawn out of the river and put on display in a church in Cologne, where God cures many more people through it. The people of Tremoigne wish to have the body, and their request is granted. The body is laid in a cart, which moves of its own accord to Tremoigne. The people of Tremoigne build a church for him, whither Charlemagne comes to mourn his nephew.

DUTCH PROSE

One version of the Dutch prose (my source does not specify which) has the masons kill Reinolt with a rock, instead of their hammers, as is usual in this family. The Catholic versions removed Malegys’ magical escapes from prison, and changed Turpin from a bishop to an ordinary knight. The Catholic version was used for centuries to teach children to read, and its status as a textbook preserved it from the corruptions of its French chapbook cousins.

GERMAN CHAPBOOK

The German prose of 1604 lays especial emphasis on the Catholic practices of the knights, owing to the Counter-Reformation. I cannot find whether it censored the antics of Malegys and Turpin or not. It became the standard German version, and the ancestor of the chapbooks, about which I can find no further details.

HISTORIE VAN SENT REINOLT

The story begins as a mere summary of the Dutch-German poem, omitting such details as Reinolt’s treatment of his father, with no indication of Reinolt’s eventual sanctity until his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The death of Hugh of Dordonne is said to be in 800. The bishop of Cologne is identified as Agiliolphus. Reinolt is canonized by Pope Leo. [Pope St. Leo III r. 795-816]. This version found its way into various German copies of the Golden Legend and was translated into Latin.

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THIS FAMILY

A few scholars hold that the Dutch poem represents an earlier form of the legend than that preserved in the French Quatre Fils. Most however, consider it a late offshoot. Among the reasons for regarding te Dutch poem as late are: The Dutch poem is neater, and appears interested in tying up loose ends. It has been influenced by the Geste d’Orange, such as in Charles’ intention to abdicate and the appearance of William of Orange and Aymeri of Narbonne. Reinolt serves a Saracen king, an action wholly out of character for a future saint. Malegys is a mere slapstick wonder-worker, as is typical of later texts, instead of the chivalrous knight who happens to know magic of the Quatre Fils. The flight of Reinolt to “Arden” after the fall of Montauban is clearly an attempt to combine the sieges of Montessor and Tremoigne, and the poet later on (in the martyrdom section) introduces Tremoigne out of the blue as a city closely connected to Reinolt.

The Legend of Renaud of Montauban, 7: The Dutch Poem

The Quatre Fils Aymon gave rise to a Dutch poem, which begot a multitude of descendents of its own, as follows.

Renout van Montalbaen, in Dutch verse. 1200’s. Only fragments survive. Editions:

Renout van Montalbaen, met inleidning en aanteekeningen door Dr. J. C. Matthes, Groningen, Wolters (Bibliotheek van middelnederlandsche letterkunde, 15), 1875. This one has six of the fragments.

Roethe, G., “Günser Bruchstück des mnl. Renout von Montalbaen”Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Litteratur, 48, 1906. This one has a seventh fragment.

Vita Sancti Reinoldi Rythmice. A Latin saint’s life in verse, printed by Joseph Floss in Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein, inbesondere das alte Erzdiöcese Köln, Volume 30, 1876, pages 185-203. Clearly from the Dutch, as evidenced by the names of the brethern, their mother being the sister of Charles, Clarice being Yon’s daughter, and Renaud’s slaying of three sultans in the Holy Land.

De Historie van den vier Heemskindern. Dutch prose adaptation, 1508. This is the ancestor of the Dutch and German chapbooks. Edition: De Historie van den vier Heemskindern editor G. S. Overdiep, 1931, available for free online from the Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren.

In 1619 a censored edition, expunging passages considered contrary to morals and the Catholic Faith, received the imprimatur and became the standard version in the Catholic Low Countries. The Protestants continued to print the old version. The censored version was used in Dutch schools well into the twentieth century, and thus escaped the corruptions of the popular French versions.

Die vier Heymons Kinder. German prose adaptiation of 1604. The standard German edition and ancestor of the German chapbooks.

Reinolt von Montelban oder die Heimonskinder. Middle High German verse, 1450. Two manuscripts survive, complete. Edition: Reinolt von Montelban oder die Heimonskinder, edited by Fridrich Pfaff, 1885, Volume 174 of the Bibliothek des Litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart.

Histôrie van Sent Reinolt. Short prose adaptation of the Dutch poem and other sources into Colgone-dialect German, c. 1450. Edited by Al. Reiffersheid. Zeitschrift für deutsches Philologie. Volume 5, 1874, pp. 271-293.

 

THE GERMAN POEM

The German Reinolt von Montelban is a very close adaptation of the Dutch, as far as anyone can tell. Since it is complete, and the Dutch is fragmentary, we will give a summary of the German as our base.

Charlemagne holds court at Pentecost, to which come Heyme [Aymon], Eymerich von Narbonne [Aymeri], and their nephew Hugh of Dordonne. Hugh asks Karl to requite his uncles for their long service. Charles cuts his head off. This begins a war that lasts sixteen years, in which the rebels are aided by Maugis. At last Charles makes peace by giving his sister Aye to Aymon in marriage. Nonetheless, Aymon swears that he will kill any of Charles’ relatives he finds. This leads Aye to conceal her four pregnancies, which produce Ritzart, Fritzart, Adelhart, and Reinolt. Meanwhile, Charles has a son, Ludwig [Louis the Pious]. When these five lads are of age to bear arms, Charles holds court at Pentecost again, to which Aymon does not come. Charles sends Roland, William of Orange, Bertram, and Bernard to summon him. At his castle, the talk turns to heirs, and Aymon laments his childlessness after thirty years of marriage. Aye sounds his feelings, and reveals that he actually has four sons. Aymon dubs his sons knights and gives them horses. Reinolt tests his horses by punching them in the head and kills three, before his father says he will have to have Beyart, who has the strength of nine horses, and is the son of a “dromedarius”, born on St. John’s Day. Reinolt and Beyart have a brutal fight, but Reinolt masters him. He is white behind and before, but his head has spots like a leopard’s. After this, Charles announces that he is going to crown Ludwig his heir and co-emperor. At the feast, Ludwig, urged on by the traitors Gavelon, Hardrich, and Macharius, insults the Sons at every turn, but they best him at the games and sports. Finally, Ludwig and Adelhart wager their heads on a game of chess. Ludwig wins three games, but Reinolt draws Adelhart away. They confront Ludwig later on in the hall, before King Charles. They behead Ludwig, and the Four Sons flee on Beyart. Aymon at first fights for them against the pursuing knights, but he is reconciled with Charlemagne. The Sons briefly stop by their castle of Pierlepont before fleeing south, to take service with King Safforet of Spain. After three years, in all which time they are not paid, they quarrel with him, cut his head off, and present it to his foe, King Yves of Dardone. They conquer Safforet’s kingdom for Yves, and live in peace in Dardone for seven years. Charles hears news of them, and sends threats, but Yves scoffs and gives his daughter Claradys to Reinolt and helps him build the castle of Montelban on the Gironde.

Charles goes on pilgrimage with Roland to St. James, and sees Montelban on the way. He lays siege to it for a year, but is forced to retreat. Reinolt now wishes to go see his mother, whom he has not seen for seven years. The Four Sons trade clothes with pilgrims and go to Dordone in secret. Aye receives them gladly. Aymon, however, is not present. He returns with his army, and attacks his Sons. Reinolt cuts off his hand, nose, and mouth, trusses him up on a horse, and sends him to Charles, who lays siege. Starvation threatens, so Aye sends the three oldest barefoot to Charles to ask mercy. He siezes them and plans to hang them at Monfaucon. Reinolt hurries to Montelban and returns riding Beyart. He offers to give Charles a life-size gold statue of Ludwig and to spend seven years Crusading with his brothers, if Charles will make peace. Otherwise he will lay France waste and behead Charles just like Ludwig. Charles chooses war.

Reinolt, distressed and wondering how to rescue his brothers, falls asleep in the woods. Beyart wanders off looking for food, and is captured by some of Charles’ men. The king gives him to Roland, who promises a lady that he will not ride the steed until Sunday. The army returns to Paris.

Reinolt awakens and despairs. Malegys,  Reinolt’s “uncle” [perhaps just meaning “older relative”], arrives in disguise as an ancient pilgrim, and teases Reinolt before revealing himself. Four passing monks tell Malegys about Roland then murders four passing monks and steals their clothes. The two, disguised as monks, ride to Paris, where the abbot of “their” abbey tells them of Charles’ plans for a feast and the execution of Reinolt’s brethren. Malegys disguises Reinolt as a blind man, and the two of them wait for Charles to pass by, with Roland and Beyart. Malegys tells Charles that a wise woman told him that if a blind man sits on Beyart, he will recover his sight. Charles obligingly lets Reinolt sit on the horse, and Reinolt gallops off. Malegys reveals himself and escapes. Charles wishes to hang Reinolt’s brothers immediately, before anything else goes wrong, but the Peers oppose him, and they compromise on hanging the brothers at dawn. At midnight, however, Malegys by magic opens the prison and rescues them, stopping to taunt Charles (who thinks he’s dreaming), tell him they’ll be waiting for him at Montelban, and steal his crown and sword.

Word comes that King Assys’ Saracens are besieging Cologne, so Roland and the peers go and kill them. Charles decides Roland needs a horse worthy of him, and holds a horse race, offering his crown to the winner. Malegys and Reinolt go in disguise, win, reveal themselves, and leave with the crown, scorning Charles’ attempts to ransom it for a hundred-day truce.

When Easter comes around again, Charles sends four mules laden with gold to Yves, ordering him to betray the brothers or else. Yves succombs at once, without even consulting his barons, and agrees to send the brothers to Falcolon [Vaucoleurs], without armor and without Beyart. He goes to Montelban and arranges the treason, claiming that he can’t embrace Reinolt or eat his food because of his headache. Claradys is suspicious, but Reinolt slaps her for believing in dreams and insulting her own father. The brothers go to Falcolon, where they are ambushed by Fauke von Morlyon and Ogier. Reinolt splits Fauke’s head open with Florsberg, Rizhart is sorely wounded, Reinolt duels Ogier on foot, and their horses fight each other, and finally the brothers take refuge on a tall, defendable, rock. Malegys comes to the rescue, and the cousins return to Montelban, whence Yves flees to the cloister of Beaurepar. Rizhart reconciles Reinolt and Claradys.

Ogier, meanwhile, returns to camp, and thinks Yves must have sent Malegys. The Twelve Peers attack Beaurepar, intending to hang the king for his alleged double-treason. Reinolt comes and rescues him. Charles lays siege to Montelban. Rizhart is captured by Roland and taken with the army all the way back to Paris. but none of the Peers are willing to hang him except Rippe. Rizhart is led out to Montefaucon to be hanged, but Malegys has been spying in Paris disguised as a pilgrim, and returns with the brothers, who hang Rippe instead, kill his men, and dress Rizhard in his armor. Charles and Ogier, meanwhile, are at the palace, when “Rippe” returns. Charles comes out to meet him, Rizhard reveals himself, and his brothers leap out of ambush. A melee ensues. As the two sides are withdrawing, Olivier spots an old pilgrim hobbling away, realizes it must be Malegys, and captures him. The Peers are inclined to treat him well at dinner, but Charles chains him in the dungeon and sets the Peers to guard him. At midnight, he puts them to sleep, steals their swords, and escapes. Reinolt, meanwhile, has had a dream of Malegys being hanged, and rides to his castle to check on him. He is not there, so Reinolt goes to Paris, where he meets Malegys, who has handily escaped and is now carrying twelve swords. They return to Montelban.

Charles pursues with his army, and the siege resumes. Peace negotiations break down, and Charles captures Malegys again. At midnight, Malegys escapes, carries Charles off to Montelban, and departs. Charles will not make peace unless Malegys is executed, and Reinolt cannot hand over his cousin and will not execute his sovereign, so he sets him free, and the siege resumes. Everyone starves except the brothers and Claradys [Yves has vanished from the scene, and Reinolt’s children are not mentioned but are presumably here]. They eat all the horses save Beyart, but they bleed him and survive on his blood for forty days. At last, they are forced to flee. Beyart carries the Four Sons (they leave Claradys [and the unmentioned children] behind) to their castle in Arden, whither Charles pursues them. Duchess Aye persuades the emperor to make peace, but he insists on executing Beyart. Charles ties a millstone around the horse’s neck and throws him in the river, but he sees Reinolt, bursts the stone, and rushes to his side. Charles throws him back in with a millstone on each leg, and he escapes again. Charles forbids Reinolt to watch the execution, and this time Beyart escapes to the wood, never to be seen again. Reinolt returns home to Montelban, dubs his eldest son Emmerich a knight, and gives him the castle as his fief. He then departs on pilgrimage.

He spends three years in a hermitage, until a heavenly voice tells him to go to the Holy Land. He meets some knights sent by Pope Calixtus, and travels with them from Tripoli to Acre. There he finds Malegys, who has been living as a hermit in Galilee. The two of them slay a Sultan, but two more Sultans comewith nine champions. They conquer Nazareth and Jerusalem, slaying many Christians. Malegys is slain fighting them, but Reinolt single-handedly saves the day, and turns the whole land back to Christianity. The Patriarch wishes to crown him king, but Reinolt refuses and sails home to Marseilles. When he arrives, he learns that his son Emmerich is to fight a duel with Count Willam of Romelion in Paris. He goes to Paris, in disguise, and informs the king of the wars in the Holy Land and of Malegys’ death. Gavelon and Pynapel arrange for Pynapel’s eldest son Galleran to fight on William’s behalf, but Emmerich still wins. Reinolt now wanders to Cologne, where he joins the laborers on St. Peter’s Church. He works harder than anyone, but only takes a penny a day for wages. The others, jealous, kill him with their hammers and throw his body in the Rhine, tied up in a sack. Although it is the middle of the night when they do this, they hear a sweet sound and see as clearly as if it were day. An old widow who has been fourteen years lame, blind, and deaf has a dream telling her to go down to the river and to draw out the man’s body in a sack which she will find there. She has herself taken to the river bank, is cured upon seeing the sack, and drags it to land. On the body is a costly girdle, which reads “I am Reinolt von Montelban”. The people of Dorpmund hear tell of this, and wish to have the body, which the bishop of Cologne refuses to grant. But when it is laid in a cart, the cart moves of itself and travels all the way to Dorpmund, obliging the bishop to give in. Charles hears tell of his nephew’s death and threatens to raze Cologne. He settles for hanging the murderers. He then goes to Dorpmund and weeps over his nephew’s body. Saint Reinolt, pray for us, and all say Amen.